UNLABELLED The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment in a group of mildly anemic women. METHODS This randomized controlled study included 50 healthy, mildly anemic women who underwent total hysterectomy for leiomyomas. The study group (Group A) included 23 women who received rHuEPO 600 U/kg once weekly for three weeks,
plus iron supplementation. The control group (Group B) included 27 women who received only iron supplementation. Blood samples were obtained on days -14, -7, 0, +3, +7 and +14. RESULTS An increase in preoperative mean hemoglobin concentration was noted in both groups; however, the increase was significantly higher in Group A throughout the study period. Mean reticulocyte count was also significantly higher in this group, whereas mean ferritin level was significantly lower. No postoperative transfusion was needed in Group A, whereas five women were transfused in Group B. CONCLUSION Rapid and persistent improvement of hematologic parameters makes the use of rHuEPO for preoperative treatment of mildly anemic women with benign uterine pathology a very interesting approach.