The Amsterdam Stroke Study was a prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial, investigating the effect of normovolemic hemodilution and rehydration with albumin 20% and crystalloids. All patients (n = 300) received general intensive care treatment and monitoring with a pulmonary artery catheter. The therapy was individually "customized" and guided on the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 12 +/- 3 mm Hg
and for the hemodilution group on a hematocrit of 0.32 +/- 0.02 l/l. The significant differences in the subgroups emphasize the importance of a differentiation between a viscosity effect and an effect in hemodilution therapy, sometimes intensifying, sometimes counteracting each other.