BACKGROUND Exchange transfusion (ET) has been known as an effective treatment in sever neonatal jaundice. Prescribing appropriate blood group makes an important role in patient's outcome and no single component is unequivocally the best. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABO compatible packed cell, dried O, and routine O groups on exchange transfusion outcomes. METHODS
This multicenter clinical trial study is the combination of two studies which were conducted at three university hospitals (Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran). A hundred full term infants with more than 2.5 kg body weight, serum bilirubin > or = 20 mg/dl and confirmed ABO-Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) were participated in first study. Among 40 infants, 20 underwent the exchange transfusion with O packed cell (group 1) and other 20 were transfused with O dried packed cell (Hematocrit = 90%) (group 2). In the second study with the same eligibility criteria with first study, among the 60 infants, 30 had exchange transfusion with O packed cell (group 3) and the rest were transfused with infant isogroup (group 4). Serum bilirubin and hemoglobin (Hb) were evaluated before and 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the exchange transfusion. RESULTS The means of Hb after the exchange transfusion were 14.3 mg/dl in group 1, 15.62 mg/dl in group 2, 14.98 mg/dl in group 3 and 14.30 mg/dl in group 4 with significantly higher in group 2 compared with others (p = 0.02). The mean of the bilirubin after the exchange transfusion had no statistical significant difference between the four groups (p > 0.05). The mean of Hb and bilirubin before exchange transfusion had no statistically difference between all groups (p > 0.05). The mean of bilirubin before the exchange transfusion in infants who had two transfusion was significantly higher than the mean of the bilirubin before the exchange transfusion in infants with one time transfusion (p = 0.05). There was no significant difference between four groups in exchange transfusion frequency (p > 0.05). DISCUSSION This study indicated that the level of bilirubin before exchange transfusion is the only important factor which sometimes causes the necessity of second or third exchange.