BACKGROUND Blood management after arthroplasties has become a serious problem. The objective is to perform a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety between oral tranexamic acid (TXA) and intravenous TXA for blood management in total knee and hip arthroplasty. METHODS We systematically searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),
Web of Science and Google scholar. Eligibility criteria: Patients: adult patients with end-stage joint osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head, who prepared for TJA; Interventions: The experiential group received the intravenous form of TXA; Comparisons: Oral form of TXA; Outcomes: Total blood loss, hemoglobin reduction, transfusion requirements, duration of hospitalization, and thrombotic complications including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE); Study design: Randomized control trials (RCTs) and non-RCT. Meta-analysis results were collected and analyzed by the software STATA 11.0. After testing for heterogeneity between studies, data were aggregated for random-effects models when necessary. RESULTS Four RCTs and 2 non-RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis revealed that there were no significant differences regarding total blood loss (WMD = -25.013, 95% CI: -51.002 to 0.977, P = .059), postoperative hemoglobin decline (WMD = -0.090, 95% CI: -0.205 to 0.024, P = .122), or transfusion rate (RD = -0.039, 95% CI: -0.080 to 0.002, P = .062) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION Oral TXA shows comparable efficacy to that of the intravenous forms after total knee and hip arthroplasty. Due to the limited quality of evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs is necessary.