Combined intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid administration in total knee arthroplasty for preventing blood loss and hyperfibrinolysis: A randomized controlled trial

Medicine. 2019;98(7):e14458
BACKGROUND Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability. However, blood loss and fibrinolytic activity, accounting for a poor prognosis following TKA operation, were relieved by fibrinolytic inhibitor tranexamic acid (TXA). For a better application of TXA function, we explored the effect of intravenous injection (IV) of TXA combined with intra-articular injection (IA) of TXA in patients after TKA. METHODS Patients admitted from Weifang People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016 who received TKA were injected with 20 mg/kg TXA by IV before TKA (n = 50), 3.0 g TXA by IA after TKA (n = 50), or combination of 20 mg/kg TXA by IV before TKA and 3.0 g TXA by IA after TKA (n = 50). Knee function was assessed using HSS, KSS, NASS, and ROM. In addition, the total blood loss (TBL), hidden blood loss (HBL), maximum hemoglobin (Hb) drop, fibrinolytic activity, as well as incidence of thromboembolism were measured. The patients were followed up for 6 months. The deadline for follow-up was June 2017 and the incidence of thromboembolism events within 6 months after operation was counted. RESULTS HSS, KSS, NASS scores, and ROM were elevated after patients receiving TKA. Patients received IV plus IA TXA has decreased TBL, HBL, and maximum Hb drop than those received IV TXA-alone and IA TXA-alone, with reductions in FDP and D-dimer, indicating that IV plus IA TXA injection is superior to prevent blood loss and hyperfibrinolysis during TKA. Age, sex, type of femoral prosthesis, and the injection method of TXA were risk factors for HBL of patients after receiving TKA. CONCLUSIONS The aforementioned results demonstrate that TKA is an effective surgery, and IV plus IA TXA injection functions more effectively in reducing blood loss and fibrinolytic activity in patients, which is a clinical factor of occult hemorrhage.
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Language : eng
Additional Material : Erratum in ‘Medicine’ (2019) PMID: 30896672, 98(12): e15000 DOI: <a href=""></a>
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine