Showa University School of Medicine, Namics 301, 4-24-51 Takanawa, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org. Yokohama City University School of Data Science, Yokohama, Japan. Japan/Asia Clinical Development 2, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan. Medical Science Urology and Nephrology, Astellas Pharma Europe B.V., Leiden, The Netherlands. Japan-Asia Data Science, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
INTRODUCTION This study evaluated efficacy and safety/tolerability of roxadustat, an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in Japanese anemic non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients. METHODS In this phase 2, double-blind, 24-week study, NDD-CKD patients were randomized to oral placebo or roxadustat (50, 70, or 100 mg) three times weekly (TIW) for 6 weeks followed by dose adjustments to maintain
hemoglobin (Hb) at 10-12 g/dL for 18 weeks; patients meeting pre-defined criteria were re-randomized to TIW or once-weekly dosing. The primary end point was rate of rise of Hb (g/dL/week) during the first 6 weeks; secondary end points included response rate (Hb ≥ 10.0 g/dL and increase in Hb from baseline ≥ 1 g/dL) and mean Hb and change from baseline in Hb at weeks 18-24. The main safety outcomes were vital signs, laboratory test results, electrocardiograms, and frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events. RESULTS Of 107 patients randomized, 83 completed the study. The mean (SD) rate of rise of Hb during the first 6 weeks was - 0.052 (0.142) for placebo and + 0.200 (0.160), + 0.453 (0.256), and + 0.570 (0.240) for roxadustat 50-, 70-, and 100-mg TIW groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Response rate was 14.8% for placebo and 81.5%, 100%, and 100% for roxadustat TIW groups (p < 0.001). Change in Hb from baseline at weeks 18-24 was - 0.17 (0.61) for placebo and + 1.10 (0.71), + 1.33 (0.82), and + 1.55 (0.88) g/dL for roxadustat TIW groups (p < 0.001). No deaths or major adverse cardiac events occurred with roxadustat. CONCLUSION Roxadustat was well tolerated and effective in correcting Hb levels within 6 weeks in Japanese anemic NDD-CKD patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01964196. Registered 15 October 2013 (retrospectively registered). FUNDING Astellas Pharma Inc.