The association between allogeneic perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) and decreased survival among patients undergoing various oncological surgeries has been established in various malignant diseases, including colorectal, thoracic and hepatocellular cancer. However, when focusing on urologic tumors, the significance of PBT and its adverse effect remains debatable, mainly due to inconsistency between studies. Nevertheless, the rate of PBT remains high and
may reach up to 62% in patients undergoing major urologic surgeries. Hence, the relatively high rate of PBT among related operations, along with the increasing prevalence of several urologic tumors, give this topic great significance in clinical practice. Indeed, recent retrospective studies, followed by systematic reviews in both prostate and bladder cancer surgery have supported the association that has been demonstrated in several malignancies, while other major urologic malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma and upper tract urothelial carcinoma, have also been addressed retrospectively. It is only a matter of time before the data will be sufficient for qualitative systematic review/qualitative evidence synthesis. In the current study, we performed a literature review to define the association between PBT and the oncological outcomes in patients who undergo surgery for major urologic malignancies. We believe that the current review of the literature will increase awareness of the importance and relevance of this issue, as well as highlight the need for evidence-based standards for blood transfusion as well as more controlled transfusion thresholds.