Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China. National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders (Chongqing), Chongqing, China. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, China. China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing, China.
While coronary artery abnormality (CAA) has been established as the most serious complication of Kawasaki disease (KD), there have been no detailed systematic reviews of the risk factors associated with this condition. We searched six databases and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) for each factor were pooled using a random effects model. We identified four
risk factors for CAA children with KD: gender (OR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-1.92), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 2.07-5.67), IVIG treatment beyond 10 days of onset of symptoms (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.23-5.97), and increased C-reactive protein levels (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02). More number of the five typical symptoms of KD was identified as a protective factor against CAA (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66). Pediatric patients with IVIG resistant were more likely to develop CAA within 1 month of the onset of KD than the general population, even in patients with other risk factors for CAA. Thus, there is a potential risk of CAA misdiagnosis if echocardiography is not carried out frequently. In summary, we report four risk factors for CAA and a protective factor against CAA in children with KD. We recommend that pediatricians consider these factors much more closely. With accurate prediction and early preventive treatment in high-risk patients, we can expect a reduction in CAA rates. Further research is now required to investigate the associations between CAA and other factors including the interval between KD onset and IVIG administration, platelet count, and the duration of fever. We also need to confirm whether the frequency of echocardiography within a month of KD onset should be increased in IVIG-resistant patients.