Blood transfusions following major burn injury are common due to operative losses, blood sampling, and burn physiology. While massive transfusion improves outcomes in adult trauma patients, literature examining its effect in critically ill children is limited. The study purpose was to prospectively compare outcomes of major pediatric burns receiving a 1:1 vs 4:1 packed red blood cell (PRBC) to fresh
frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion strategy during massive burn excision. Children with >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burns were randomized to a 1:1 or 4:1 PRBC/FFP transfusion ratio during burn excision. Parameters examined include patient demographics, burn size, Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) scores, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores, laboratory values, total blood products transfused, and the presence of blood stream infections or pneumonia. A total of 68 children who met inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups (n=34). Mean age, PRISM scores, estimated blood loss (600 mL (400 - 1175 mL) v 600 mL (300 - 1150 mL), p = 0.68), ventilator days (5 v 9, p = 0.47), and length of stay (57 v 60 days, p = 0.24) had no difference. No differences in frequency of blood stream infection (20 v 18, p = 0.46) or pneumonia events (68 v 116, p = 0.08) were noted. On multivariate analysis, only TBSA burn size, inhalation injury, and PRISM scores (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with infections.