Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address: J.vanKlarenbosch@umcutrecht.nl. Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. HaemoScan BV, Groningen, the Netherlands. Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2020
OBJECTIVE Primary outcome was the risk for infections after cell salvage in cardiac surgery. DESIGN Data of a randomized controlled trial on cell salvage and filter use (ISRCTN58333401). SETTING Six cardiac surgery centers in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS All 716 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or combined procedures over a 4-year period who completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS
Postoperative infection data were assessed according to Centre of Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definitions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Fifty-eight (15.9%) patients with cell salvage had infections, compared with 46 (13.1%) control patients. Mediation analysis was performed to estimate the direct effect of cell salvage on infections (OR 2.291 [1.177;4.460], p=0.015) and the indirect effects of allogeneic transfusion and processed cell salvage blood on infections. Correction for confounders, including age, seks and body mass index was performed. Allogeneic transfusion had a direct effect on infections (OR=2.082 [1.133;3.828], p=0.018), but processed cell salvage blood did not (OR=0.999 [0.999; 1.001], p=0.089). There was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on allogeneic transfusion (OR=0.275 [0.176;0.432], p < 0.001), but a negative direct effect of processed cell salvage blood (1.001 [1.001;1.002], p < 0.001) on allogeneic transfusion. Finally, there was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on the amount of processed blood. CONCLUSIONS Cell salvage was directly associated with higher infection rates, but this direct effect was almost completely eliminated by its indirect protective effect through reduced allogeneic blood transfusion.