Sjögren's Syndrome Associated With Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Case-Based Review

Institute for Health Sciences from Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Chaim Sheba Medical Center The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Tel Hashomer, Israel. I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Rheumatology and therapy. 2020
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OBJECTIVE To review all published cases of the rare association between thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The authors report an additional case of this unique association. METHODS Systematic review of the literature and a case report. The database were articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, LILACS, and SciELO, registered from 1966 to August 2020. The DESH terms were "Sjögren's syndrome" and "thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura," without language limitation. RESULTS Most patients were female (88%), and the age varied from 30 to 75 years old. Concerning the sequence of disease appearance, SS followed by TTP was seen in seven articles, TTP and SS in three, and simultaneous appearance of both diseases in three studies. Primary SS was observed in 16 patients, and secondary SS was detected in two cases: dermatomyositis and rheumatoid arthritis. Anemia was the most common TTP manifestation, followed by thrombocytopenia, fever, consciousness alteration, renal impairment, and schistocytes' appearance on a blood smear. Treatment involved plasmapheresis, plasma exchange, rituximab, glucocorticoid, and cyclophosphamide. A good outcome was noted in most studies; few patients died. CONCLUSIONS TTP is a rare manifestation associated with SS. After the TTP diagnosis, plasmapheresis and/or plasma exchange should be immediately implemented.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine