Aneurysms in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a case-based review

Institute for Health Sciences from Federal University of Bahia, Rua das Violetas, 42, ap. 502, Pituba, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Chaim Sheba Medical Center The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel. I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Clinical rheumatology. 2021
Full text from:
To perform a review on patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who developed an aneurysm. A review of articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO dating from 1966 to October 2020 was conducted using the following search words: "Antiphospholipid syndrome" and "aneurysm." No language limitation was applied. This review includes 10 articles on APS patients and aneurysms entailing 14, including our additional case. Age varied from 20 to 76 years old, and female sex was predominant and presented in 54%. The arterial vessels compromised were aorta (n = 6), coronary (n = 2), hepatic (n = 2), renal (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (n = 2), and then splenic, superior mesenteric, pancreatic, retinal, jejunal, carotid, and pulmonary. Frequencies of antiphospholipid antibodies were described as follows: lupus anticoagulant (n = 6), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (n = 4), IgG and IgM anticardiolipin (n = 3), IgG anticardiolipin (n = 3), and antiphosphatidylserine (n = 2). The presence of APS manifestations was distributed as deep venous thrombosis (n = 4), recurrent abortions (n = 4), pulmonary embolism (n = 3), stroke, or transitory ischemic accident (n = 3), and then limb ischemia and thrombocytopenia. The therapies used in these patients were warfarin, antiplatelet agent, vascular surgery, heparin, hydroxychloroquine, coil embolism, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Regarding outcomes, 5 patients were alive, and 3 were dead. This article reviewed all published cases on APS and aneurysm and showed that women who presented with abortions and deep venous thromboses with a lupus anticoagulant are those patients more commonly affected by aneurysms in APS.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine