Faculty of Dentistry, Sir John Walsh Research Institute, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Craniofacial and Biomaterial Sciences, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Kepala Batas 13200, Malaysia.
OBJECTIVE The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low elastic modulus and strength, and limited storage capability. These issues restrict their broader application. This review focuses
on the lyophilization of PCs (LPCs) and how this processing approach affects their biological and mechanical properties for application as a bioactive scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted from 1946 until 2019 using a combination of search terms relating to this topic. RESULTS Ten manuscripts were identified as being relevant. The use of LPCs was mostly studied in in vitro and in vivo craniofacial bone regeneration models. Notably, one clinical study reported the utility of LPCs for guided bone regeneration prior to dental implant placement. CONCLUSIONS Lyophilization can enhance the inherent characteristics of PCs and extends shelf-life, enable their use in emergency surgery, and improve storage and transportation capabilities. In light of this, further preclinical studies and clinical trials are required, as LPCs offer a potential approach for clinical application in craniofacial tissue regeneration.