Early intravenous tranexamic acid intervention reduces post-traumatic hidden blood loss in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture: a randomized controlled trial

Department of Orthopaedics, Chongqing General Hospital, Chongqing, 400021, People's Republic of China. Department of Orthopedics, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China. liuinsistence@163.com. Department of Radiology, Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Chongqing, 400022, People's Republic of China. liuxi7979@sina.com.

Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):106
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Abstract
PURPOSE Elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures exhibit post-traumatic hidden blood loss (HBL). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reducing post-traumatic HBL via early intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) intervention in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted with 125 patients (age ≥ 65 years, injury time ≤ 6 h) who presented with intertrochanteric fracture from September 2018 and September 2019. Patients in the TXA group (n = 63) received 1 g of IV TXA at admission, whereas those in the normal saline (NS) group (n = 62) received an equal volume of saline. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) were recorded at post-traumatic admission (PTA) and on post-traumatic days (PTDs) 1-3. HBL was calculated using the Gross formula. Lower extremity venous ultrasound was performed to detect venous thrombosis. RESULTS Hgb on PTDs 2 and 3 was statistically higher in the TXA group than in the NS group. Hct and HBL on PTDs 1-3 were significantly less in the TXA group compared to the NS group. Preoperative transfusion rate was significantly lower in the TXA group compared with the NS group. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the rates of complications. CONCLUSION Early IV TXA intervention could reduce post-traumatic HBL and pre-operative transfusion rate in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures without increasing the risk of venous thrombosis.
Study details
Language : eng
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