INTRODUCTION Adherence to hydroxyurea is essential to modify the pathology of sickle cell disease. OBJECTIVE To identify best strategies to support adherence to hydroxyurea in persons with sickle cell disease. METHODS A systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Embase databases and Cochrane Library were searched for studies between 1998 to 2018.
RESULTS Six studies met inclusion criteria: two randomized controlled trials, three prospective studies, and one retrospective chart review. DISCUSSION Few studies addressed strategies that tested adherence interventions primarily composed of behavioral change resulting in medication adherence. More studies on hydroxyurea adherence are needed.