Health Economics and Outcomes Research Ltd, Cardiff, UK. Department of Heart Diseases, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland. Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George's University, London, UK. University of Warwick, Warwick, UK. Vifor Pharma, Glattbrugg, Switzerland.
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure (HF). In AFFIRM-AHF, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of hospitalisations for HF (HHF) and improved quality of life vs. placebo in iron-deficient patients with a recent episode of acute HF. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of FCM compared with placebo in iron-deficient patients with
left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, stabilised after an episode of acute HF, using data from the AFFIRM-AHF trial from Italian, UK, US and Swiss payer perspectives. METHODS AND RESULTS A lifetime Markov model was built to characterise outcomes in patients according to the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Health states were defined using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). Subsequent HHF were incorporated using a negative binomial regression model with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporated via parametric survival analysis. Direct healthcare costs (2020 GBP/USD/EUR/CHF) and utility values were sourced from published literature and AFFIRM-AHF. Modelled outcomes indicated that treatment with FCM was dominant (cost saving with additional health gains) in the UK, USA and Switzerland, and highly cost-effective in Italy [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) EUR 1269 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Results were driven by reduced costs for HHF events combined with QALY gains of 0.43-0.44, attributable to increased time in higher KCCQ states (representing better functional outcomes). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses demonstrated data robustness, with the ICER remaining dominant or highly cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios, including increasing treatment costs and various patient subgroups, despite a moderate increase in costs for de novo HF and smaller QALY gains for ischaemic aetiology. CONCLUSION Ferric carboxymaltose is estimated to be a highly cost-effective treatment across countries (Italy, UK, USA and Switzerland) representing different healthcare systems.