OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. METHODS A total of 87 patients with prostate cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomies in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (the CNG, n=43, conventional infusion) and an observation group (the OG,
n=44, acute hypervolemic hemodilution). Blood gas analyses were performed at different time points, and the patients' cognitive dysfunction was evaluated. RESULTS The intraoperative blood transfusion rates of the OG and the CNG were 11.36% and 30.23%. The average intraoperative blood transfusions in the OG and the CNG were (315.46±24.49) ml and (486.95±42.17) ml (P < 0.05). The CVP and JVP levels in the OG and the CNG at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than the levels at T0 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels of the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T0 (P < 0.05), and the Hb level in the OG at T4 was lower than it was at T1 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels in the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T1 (P < 0.05), and the Hb levels in the OG at T1 and T2 were lower than they were in the CNG (P < 0.05). The MMSE cognitive function scores were lower than the scores recorded on the day before the operations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Acute hypervolemic hemodilution in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients can maintain their hemodynamics in a stable state, help reduce blood transfusion, improve the oxygen supply to the brain tissue to maintain the supply and demand balance, and reduce the impact on the patients' cognitive function.