Efficacy and Systemic Absorption of Peri-articular Versus Intra-articular Administration of Tranexamic Acid in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Department of Orthopedics, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

Arthroplasty today. 2021;11:1-5
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Abstract
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely accepted as an effective method for reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). As different routes of local TXA administration have been proposed to minimize systemic complications, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness and systemic absorption of peri-articular (PA) and intra-articular (IA) administration of TXA after primary TKA. METHODS In a randomized controlled trial of patients scheduled for unilateral primary TKA, 108 were assigned to receive PA-TXA (15 mg/kg), IA-TXA (2 g), or no TXA injection. We assessed total blood loss, blood transfusion rate, and hemoglobin level changes 48 hours after surgery. Postoperative serum TXA levels, complications, and clinical symptoms of venous thromboembolism events were also evaluated. RESULTS Total blood loss, hemoglobin level decreases, and blood transfusion rates in both TXA groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < .05), without significant differences between PA and IA groups 48 hours after surgery. Serum TXA levels in the IA group were significantly higher than those in the PA cohort at 2 hours (28.2 mg/L vs 15.6 mg/L, P < .01) and 24 hours (4.4 mg/L vs 1.7 mg/L, P < .01) postoperatively. No wound complications were found in both TXA groups, but 14% of the control group developed subcutaneous ecchymoses. No evidence of venous thromboembolism events was reported. CONCLUSIONS PA-TXA is an excellent alternative route of local TXA injection to decrease postoperative blood loss after TKA. PA-TXA demonstrated lower levels of postoperative serum TXA, which may be beneficial for high-risk patients.
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Language : eng
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