BACKGROUND Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard for benign prostatic enlargement; however, hemorrhage still remains one of the major complications. OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion. Secondary parameters compared were operating time, volume of irrigation fluid
used, and reduction in hemoglobin concentration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 70 eligible patients undergoing TURP were randomized based on computer generated table into two groups. The study group (1) received IV TXA 500 mg after induction of anesthesia and 500 mg in each irrigation fluid bottle (dual mode) and the control group (2) received none. RESULTS The mean age (68.20 vs. 66.5 years), prostate size (57 vs. 51 g), and preoperative hemoglobin (13.3 vs. 13.5 g/dl) were similar between the groups. Intraoperative blood loss in the TXA group was found to be significantly reduced (174.60 ± 125.38 ml vs. 232.47 ± 116.8; P = 0.04). Blood transfusion was required in 2.8% of cases as compared to 14.2% in controls. Operating time, volume of irrigation fluid, and postoperative reduction of hemoglobin were not significant between the groups. No complications were observed in both groups. CONCLUSION In this study, we observed that TXA, when used as a combination of Intravenous and topical route, effectively reduced intra-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion.