Effect of washed versus unwashed red blood cells on transfusion-related immune responses in preterm newborns

The Women's and Children's Hospital Adelaide SA Australia. The Robinson Research Institute The University of Adelaide Adelaide SA Australia. RINGGOLD: 1066

Clinical & translational immunology. 2022;11(3):e1377
PICO Summary

Population

Pre-term newborns (n= 154).

Intervention

Washed leucodepleted packed red blood cells (PRBCs), (n= 77).

Comparison

Standard unwashed leucodepleted PRBCs (n= 77).

Outcome

Changes in plasma cytokines and measures of endothelial activation in recipient blood were analysed after each of the first three transfusions. By the third transfusion, patients receiving unwashed blood had an increase in IL-17A and TNF, whereas patients receiving washed blood had reductions in IL-17A, TNF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-γ. The magnitude of the post-transfusion increase in cytokines did not change between the first and third transfusions in the unwashed group but decreased in the washed group for IL-12, IL-17A and TNF, with the difference between the groups reaching significance by the third transfusion for each cytokine.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES Transfusion with washed packed red blood cells (PRBCs) may be associated with reduced transfusion-related pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This may be because of alterations in recipient immune responses. METHODS This randomised trial evaluated the effect of transfusion with washed compared with unwashed PRBCs on pro-inflammatory cytokines and endothelial activation in 154 preterm newborns born before 29 weeks' gestation. Changes in plasma cytokines and measures of endothelial activation in recipient blood were analysed after each of the first three transfusions. RESULTS By the third transfusion, infants receiving unwashed blood had an increase in IL-17A (P = 0.04) and TNF (P = 0.007), whereas infants receiving washed blood had reductions in IL-17A (P = 0.013), TNF (P = 0.048), IL-6 (P = 0.001), IL-8 (P = 0.037), IL-12 (P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (P = 0.001). The magnitude of the post-transfusion increase in cytokines did not change between the first and third transfusions in the unwashed group but decreased in the washed group for IL-12 (P = 0.001), IL-17A (P = 0.01) and TNF (P = 0.03), with the difference between the groups reaching significance by the third transfusion (P < 0.001 for each cytokine). CONCLUSION The pro-inflammatory immune response to transfusion in preterm infants can be modified when PRBCs are washed prior to transfusion. Further studies are required to determine whether the use of washed PRBCs for neonatal transfusion translates into reduced morbidity and mortality.
Study details
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine