Efficacy of different anticoagulant doses for patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, 1-847, Amanuma-cho, Oomiya-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama, 330-8503, Japan. yasudahideto@me.com. Department of Clinical Research Education and Training Unit, Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center (CTR), 35, Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. yasudahideto@me.com. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. Department of Critical and Emergency Medicine, National Hospital Organization Yokohama Medical Center, Kanazawa, Japan.

Infection. 2022;:1-11
PURPOSE As no reported randomized control trials (RCTs) directly compare the three administration doses of anticoagulants (prophylactic dose, treatment dose, and no treatment), the most recommended dose to be administered to patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anticoagulant doses administered to patients with COVID-19, using a network meta-analysis (NMA) including high-quality studies. METHODS All eligible trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Clinicaltrials.gov were included. We included RCTs and observational studies adjusted for covariates for patients aged ≥ 18 years and hospitalized due to objectively confirmed COVID-19. The main study outcome was mortality. RESULTS In patients with moderate COVID-19, the prophylactic (relative risk (RR) 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.80]) and treatment dose (RR 0.57 [95% CI 0.45-0.72] were associated with a lower risk of short-term mortality than that with no anticoagulant treatment. However, the prophylactic and treatment dose groups were not significantly different. The hierarchy for efficacy in reducing short-term mortality was treatment dose (P score 92.4) > prophylactic dose (57.6) > no treatment (0.0). In patients with severe COVID-19, due to the absence of trials with the no-treatment group, NMA could not be conducted. However, pairwise comparison did not show a significant difference between the prophylactic and treatment dose groups. CONCLUSIONS Treatment and prophylactic doses of anticoagulants showed similar effects on mortality; however, the treatment dose is preferred over the prophylactic dose for patients with both moderate and severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND REGISTRATION DATES PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42021245308, 05/21/2021).
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine