The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in lumbar surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials

Department of Orthopaedics, Guangxi Liuzhou Workers Hospital (the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University), 545000 Liuzhou, China. drbingli@hotmail.com.

Joint diseases and related surgery. 2022;33(1):57-85
PICO Summary

Population

Patients undergoing lumbar surgery (49 studies, n= 4,822).

Intervention

Tranexamic acid (TXA), (n= 2,653).

Comparison

Normal saline (n= 2,169).

Outcome

TXA significantly lowered postoperative blood loss, transfusion rate, transfusion volume, total blood loss, intraoperative blood loss, and drainage compared to the control group. Haemoglobin and haematocrit values were higher in the TXA group compared to the control group. As the safety endpoints, TXA significantly reduced D-dimer levels compared to the control group; however, both TXA and control groups had no significant variations in deep venous thrombosis.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES This meta-analysis aims to assess tranexamic acid (TXA) effectiveness and safety in lumbar surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Renewals of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted utilizing databases of medical literature such as PubMed, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and EMBASE to compare principal and safety endpoints. The risk ratio (RR), standard mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. For the evaluation of the quality of the included studies, the Cochrane risk of bias criteria were utilized by two authors. RESULTS In total, 49 articles were enrolled that included 4,822 patients. Of the patients, 2,653 were administered TXA and 2,169 were in the control group. The findings indicated that TXA was capable of significantly lowering postoperative blood loss (PBL), transfusion rate, transfusion volume, total blood loss (TBL), intraoperative blood loss (IBL), and drainage compared to the control group. Besides, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values were higher in the TXA group compared to the control group. As the safety endpoints, TXA significantly reduced D-dimer levels compared to the control group; however, both TXA and control groups had no significant variations in deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Subgroup analysis was administrated according to the administration method of TXA and the operation type and intravenous and topical TXA were combined in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis showed that TXA had the potential to significantly lower PBL, transfusion rate, transfusion volume, TBL, IBL, and drainage compared to the control group. Besides, Hb and Hct values were higher in the TXA group compared to the control group. Its hemostatic potential after lumbar spine surgery is trustworthy. It is still controversial in safety endpoints that TXA can significantly reduce D-dimer compared to the control group, without no significant variations in DVT in both the TXA and control groups.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine