Objective: The "Stop the Bleed" campaign was created to educate laypeople about bleeding control and make bleeding control kits available in public locations. Unfortunately, previous research has indicated that up to half of all laypeople cannot effectively apply a tourniquet. The purpose of this study was to determine if laypeople could apply tourniquets more effectively with just-in-time training using combined
audio-written instructions versus written-only instructions.Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized study comparing the application of a tourniquet using a simulated bleeding arm. Participants were laypeople 18 years and older and excluded those with any previous tourniquet experience or training. Participants were randomized to just-in-time training using either audio-written or written-only instructions. Time in seconds to tourniquet application and the effectiveness of the tourniquet application was recorded. Effective application was defined as stopping the flow or significantly slowing the flow to a slow drip. Ineffective tourniquet placement was defined as not significantly changing the flow. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact, t-test, and linear regression.Results: Eighty-two participants were included; 40 were in the audio-written instructions group, and 58.5% were male. The audio-written group's effective application rate was 92.5% and that of the written-only group was 76.2%. A significantly higher rate of ineffective tourniquet application was noted for the written-only group, (23.8%), versus the audio-written group (7.5%), p=.04. Regardless of the type of instructions used, time to effective application of the tourniquet decreased as participant age increased (p = 0.02, 95%CI (-1.24, -0.13). There was no relationship between age and effective tourniquet application (p = 0.06). Time for tourniquet placement was not different between the audio-written (mean 100.4 seconds) and written-only (mean 106.1 seconds) groups (p = 0.58).Conclusion: This study suggests that combined audio-written instructions decrease the rate of ineffective tourniquet application by laypeople compared with written-only instructions. Further studies are needed to assess if audio instructions and just-in-time training can further maximize effective tourniquet application.