Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. University College London, London, UK. Sainte Justine University Hospital Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York, USA. Seattle Children's Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
BACKGROUND The Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease, a phase-3 clinical trial, showed that etanercept reduced the prevalence of IVIg resistance in acute Kawasaki disease. In patients who presented with coronary artery involvement, it reduced the maximal size and short-term progression of coronary artery dilation. Following up with this patient group, we evaluated the potential long-term benefit of
etanercept for coronary disease. METHODS Patients were followed for at least 1 year after the trial. The size of dilated arteries (z-score ≥ 2.5) was measured at each follow-up visit. The z-score and size change from baseline were evaluated at each visit and compared between patients who received etanercept versus placebo at the initial trial. RESULTS Forty patients who received etanercept (22) or placebo (18) in the Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease trial were included. All patients showed a persistent decrease in coronary artery size measurement: 23.3 versus 5.9% at the 6-month visit, 24 versus 13.1% at the 1-year visit, and 20.8 versus 19.3% at the ≥ 2-year visit for etanercept or placebo, respectively, with similar results for decrease in coronary artery z-scores. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for patients' growth, a greater size reduction for patients on the etanercept arm versus placebo was proved significant for the 6-month (p = 0.005) and the 1-year visits (p = 0.019) with a similar end outcome at the ≥ 2-year visit. DISCUSSION Primary adjunctive therapy with etanercept for children with acute Kawasaki disease does not change the end outcome of coronary artery disease but may promote earlier resolution of artery dilation.