Treatment of Refractory/High-Risk Pregnancies With Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Internal Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy. General Internal Medicine and Thrombotic and Hemorrhagic Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:849692
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Different treatment protocols have been employed to manage heparin/low-dose aspirin refractory or high-risk pregnancies in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) pregnancies. A systematic review of the literature on additional treatments used in refractory and/or high-risk APS pregnancies was conducted. Records from February 2006 to October 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and the platform. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria. Live birth rate is this study's primary endpoint, while pregnancy complications and adverse events are secondary endpoints. A total of 434 pregnancies, 162 (37.3%) refractory and 272 (62.7%) high-risk/refractory pregnancies, were included. Both IVIG <2 gr/kg/monthly/HCQ/LDS and PEX/IA ± LDS led to 100% viable infants in refractory APS. Furthermore, HCQ 200-400 mg showed a higher live birth rate than HCQ + LDS (88.6% vs. 82.7%). Following treatment protocol with HCQ 200-400 mg and IVIG <2 gr/kg/monthly/HCQ/LDS, pregnancy complications rates of 16.7 and 83.3% were registered, respectively. Pravastatin 20 mg, IA weekly + IVIG 2 gr/monthly, and PEX weekly + IVIg 2 gr/kg/monthly showed higher live birth rates in high-risk APS pregnancies of 100, 100 and 92%, respectively, whereas the lower severe pregnancy complications were reported in pregnancies treated with PEX weekly + IVIg 2 gr/kg/monthly (11.1%). One (0.6%) case of dermatitis during treatment with HCQ was observed. The results of this study showed that HCQ 200-400 mg and PEX weekly + IVIG 2 gr/kg/monthly achieved a higher live birth rate in refractory APS and high-risk/refractory APS, respectively. The results presented provide clinicians with up-to-date knowledge in the management of APS pregnancies according to risk stratification.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine