Department of Medical Affairs, Clinical Development and Medical Safety, Haemonetics Corporation, Boston, MA 02110, USA. Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China.
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), alongside percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is central to the prevention of ischemic events following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, response to therapy can vary due to several factors including CYP2C19 gene variation, which shows increased prevalence in East Asian populations. DAPT responsiveness can be assessed using techniques such as light transmission aggregometry (LTA), VerifyNow(®) and thromboelastography
with the PlateletMapping(®) assay, and there is increasing focus on the utility of platelet function testing to guide individualized treatment. This systematic literature review of one English and three Chinese language databases was conducted to evaluate the evidence for the utility of thromboelastography in ACS/PCI in East Asia. The search identified 42 articles from the English language and 71 articles from the Chinese language databases which fulfilled the pre-determined inclusion criteria, including 38 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The identified studies explored the use of thromboelastography compared to LTA and VerifyNow in monitoring patient responsiveness to DAPT, as well as predicting ischemic risk, with some studies suggesting that thromboelastography is better able to detect low DAPT response than LTA. Other studies, including one large RCT, described the use of thromboelastography in guiding the escalation of DAPT, with some evidence suggesting that such protocols reduce ischemic events without increasing the risk of bleeding. There was also evidence suggesting that thromboelastography can be used to identify individuals with DAPT hyporesponsiveness genotypes and could potentially guide treatment by adjusting therapy in patients depending on responsiveness.