Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and the Quality of Surgical Field in Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgeries: Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Control Trial

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Neurology India. 2022;70(3):960-964

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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Pituitary adenomas are common intracranial neoplasms and several cases require surgery, radiotherapy or radiosurgery. Transsphenoidal access to the pituitary gland is the commonest surgical approach. In microscopic or endoscopic approach to the pituitary, even modest bleeding can significantly worsen the surgical field for the neurosurgeon, lengthen intra-operative time and lead to potentially catastrophic complications. METHODS The investigators hypothesized that administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) would improve the quality of the surgical field and reduce bleeding during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) of pituitary tumors. Fifty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical-status 1 or 2 patients undergoing TSS were randomized into two groups: T and P. Patients in Group T received 25 mg/kg bolus of TXA followed by intraoperative infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour, while those in Group P received a matching saline infusion. The operating neurosurgeon, and the anesthesiologist, who managed the patient and collected data, were blinded to the test drug. Surgical field quality was assessed using the Boezaart scale. A single neurosurgeon performed all the surgeries to ensure consistency in estimating the quality of the surgical field. RESULTS The median Boezaart score (interquartile range) was 3 (1.0) in Group T and 3.0 (1.5) in Group P (P = 0.03). There was an absolute blood loss reduction of nearly 32% with TXA use. Blood loss in Group T was 334 ± 101 mL, compared to 495 ± 226 mL in Group P (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION The administration of TXA significantly improved the quality of surgical field and reduced blood loss in patients undergoing TSS.
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Language : eng
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