Efficacy and safety of vadadustat compared to darbepoetin alfa on anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

Department of Nephropathy, Luohu District Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. Department of Nephropathy, Luohu District Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. 1034952286@qq.com.

International urology and nephrology. 2022
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OBJECTIVE As a novel oral agent in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), several clinical trials of vadadustat have been conducted to compare with darbepoetin alfa. This study systematically reviews and investigates the efficacy and safety of vadadustat in the anemia treatment with different duration in both nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) and dialysis-dependent CKD (DD-CKD). METHODS Several main databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting vadadustat vs darbepoetin alfa for anemia patients with CKD. The outcome indicators were focused on hemoglobin (Hb), the percentage of patients within the target Hb, the need for RBC (Red Blood Cell) transfusions, and serious adverse events (SAEs). RESULTS Four eligible studies with 8,026 participants were included. The changes of Hb levels from the baseline in the darbepoetin alfa group were significantly higher than that in the vadadustat group with DD-CKD (mean difference (MD) - 0.19, [95% confidence interval (CI), - 0.21 to - 0.17], p < 0.0001). In NDD-CKD patients, the changes of Hb levels in the two groups are not significantly different (MD = - 0.06, [95% CI, - 0.18 to 0.05], p = 0.006), especially, during the treatment duration of 20-36 weeks (MD = 0.02, [95% CI, - 0.04 to 0.08], p = 0.51). The percentage of patients within the target Hb was significantly lower in the vadadustat group than that in the darbepoetin alfa group in DD-CKD patients (MD = 0.9, [95% CI, 0.86 to 0.94], p < 0.00001), while in NDD-CKD patients, there was no significant difference (MD = 1.05, [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.12], p < 0.00001). In terms of safety, the two agents had no significant difference in the incidence of RBC transfusions and SAEs (RR = 1.26 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.61], p = 0.52; RR = 0.97, [95% CI, 0.94 to 1.01], p = 0.19; respectively). CONCLUSION Compared to darbepoetin alfa, vadadustat had the same effect in raising the hemoglobin level in NDD-CKD patients in the short term. Vadadustat may become an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of patients with anemia and CKD, especially in NDD-CKD patients. As the application of vadadustat is still under exploration, future research should compensate for the limitations of our study to estimate the vadadustat's value.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine