Effectiveness of "Stop the Bleed" Courses: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Clinical Skills Training Center, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China. Department of Mechanical and Material Science Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address: Jinshen.he@Hotmail.com.

Journal of surgical education. 2022
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Abstract
OBJECTIVE Our object was to comprehensively analyze the existing body of evidence to evaluate the Stop the Bleed (STB) course effectiveness and satisfaction and find the direction of improvement for the future. STUDY DESIGN A literature search with the term "Stop the Bleed" in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library was performed, retrieving records from January 1, 2013 to April 13, 2022 based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram. In addition, all selected papers' references were examined for qualified studies that were missed during the first search. Original publications were included that reported on (1) clinical studies of the STB course implementation; and (2) studies comparing students' hemostasis ability and attitude (comfort, confidence, and willingness) before and after the STB course. The literature search and data extraction were done independently by 2 writers. To establish consensus, disagreements will be handled with the help of a third reviewer. For data synthesis, the most inclusive data from studies with repeated data were abstracted. Changes in hemostasis questionnaire scoring and operation evaluation after the STB course were the main outcomes. RESULTS This systematic review and meta-analysis includes 36 trials with a total of 11,561 trainees. Thirty-one of them were undertaken in the USA, while the other 5, accounting for 13.9%, were conducted in other regions. Among various evaluation methods, 3 trials with 927 trainees indicated that scores of correct uses of tourniquet significantly increased after the STB course (mean difference of post versus pre groups, 44.28; 95% CI 41.24-47.32; p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in the willingness to apply a hemostatic dressing in a real-world situation (risk ratio for post versus pre groups, 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52; p = 0.004) (7 studies and 2360 participants). The results indicate that hemostasis knowledge and skills after the STB course had improved, but statistics indicated that STB courses implemented in the USA were more effective than other regions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Meta-analysis showed that comparison before and after the STB course were significantly different. However, the outcome measures in each study were different and could not, therefore, be compiled in all cases. The effectiveness and worth of implementation of STB in different countries should be continuously evaluated in the future.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine