Acute burn surgery has long been associated with significant intra-operative bleeding. Several techniques were introduced to limit hemorrhage, including tourniquets, tumescent infiltration, and topical agents. To date, no study has comprehensively investigated the available data regarding topical hemostatic agents in burn surgery. A systematic review was performed by two independent reviewers using electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) from
first available to September 10, 2021. Articles were included if they were published in English and described or evaluated topical hemostatic agents used in burn excision and/or grafting. Data were extracted on the agent(s) used, their dosage, mode of delivery, hemostasis outcomes, and complications. The search identified 1982 non-duplicate citations, of which 134 underwent full-text review, and 49 met inclusion criteria. In total, 32 studies incorporated a vasoconstrictor agent, and 28 studies incorporated a procoagulant agent. Four studies incorporated other agents (hydrogen peroxide, tranexamic acid, collagen sheets, and TT-173). The most common vasoconstrictor used was epinephrine, with doses ranging from 1:1,000-1:1,000,000. The most common procoagulant used was thrombin, with doses ranging from 10-1,000 IU/mL. Among the comparative studies, outcomes of blood loss were not reported in a consistent manner, therefore meta-analysis could not be performed. The majority of studies (94%) were level of evidence III-V. Determining the optimal topical hemostatic agent is limited by low-quality data and challenges with consistent reporting of intra-operative blood loss. Given the routine use of topical hemostatic agents in burn surgery, high-quality research is essential to determine the optimal agent, dosage, and mode of delivery.