A Comparative Preliminary Randomized Clinical Study to Evaluate Heavy Bupivacaine Dextrose Prolotherapy (HDP) and Autologous Blood Injection (ABI) for Symptomatic Temporomandibular Joint Hypermobility Disorder
PURPOSE Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sub-luxation can have a significant psycho-social impact on a patients' well-being. Several treatment modalities have been described in the literature for the same. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of heavy bupivacaine-dextrose prolotherapy (HDP) for the peri-articular tissues, superior joint space and the retro-discal area in the patients with symptomatic chronic sub-luxation. MATERIALS
AND METHODS A preliminary clinical study was conducted among 60 patients diagnosed with chronic painful sub-luxation of the TMJ. Patients were divided into control group (CG), n = 30, where autologous blood was injected in the superior joint space, peri-capsular tissues and retro-discal area bilaterally as per the predetermined protocol; and the study group (SG), n = 30 patients were administered heavy bupivacaine-dextrose injection bilaterally in the peri-articular tissues, superior joint space and retro-discal area. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by assessing pain, maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO), changes in computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging study, number and need for subsequent injections in both the groups. RESULT Among the 60 patients, majority of the patients exhibited successful outcome after both the interventions, ABI and HDP. There was statistically significant reduction in recorded pain score with reduced MIO post-treatment. No morphological changes were noted in the condyle in both the groups. No complications were recorded among the study population. CONCLUSION HDP is a safe and simple modality for treating symptomatic sub-luxation with predictable clinical outcome. Heavy bupivacaine-dextrose can be considered as a prolotherapeutic agent for symptomatic chronic temporomandibular joint sub-luxation with the pharmacological benefit of local anaesthesia and proliferent delivery through the same injection.