Safety of Roxadustat Versus Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients with Anemia of Non-dialysis-Dependent or Incident-to-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: Pooled Analysis of Four Phase 3 Studies

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, University Rd, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK. Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, MVZ DaVita Rhein-Ruhr GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany. Department of Nephrology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain. Department of Nephrology, Anemia Working Group Spanish Society of Nephrology, Madrid, Spain. Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, CHU Amiens Picardie and Jules Verne University, Amiens, France. Department of Nephrology, University of Campania, Naples, Italy. Department of Statistics, Astellas Pharma, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Department of Nephrology, Guard Therapeutics International AB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Advances in therapy. 2023
INTRODUCTION This study was conducted to elucidate the safety of roxadustat, an oral medication, in patients with non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) or incident dialysis dialysis-dependent (ID-DD) chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS Safety results from four phase 3, randomized, open-label studies comparing roxadustat to an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in men and women with NDD or ID-DD CKD with anemia were pooled and evaluated. Endpoints were time to major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) and MACE+ (MACE plus congestive heart failure or unstable angina requiring hospitalization), all-cause mortality, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). MACE and MACE+ were evaluated for non-inferiority at 1.8- and 1.3-margins using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). TEAEs were descriptively summarized. RESULTS In total, 2142 patients were evaluated (1083 roxadustat; 1059 ESA). Roxadustat was comparable to ESA for risk of MACE (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-1.02), MACE+ (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.98), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.05). TEAEs were comparable between roxadustat and ESA groups, including any TEAE [incidence rate per 100 (IR/100) patient-exposure years 56.1 vs. 53.5], TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation (IR/100 patient-exposure years 6.7 vs. 5.1), and TEAEs leading to death (IR/100 patient-exposure years 6.9 vs. 7.4). CONCLUSION There was no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular events or mortality with roxadustat compared with ESA in patients with anemia who have NDD or ID-DD CKD. Although TEAEs occurred commonly in both the roxadustat and ESA groups, patients infrequently discontinued the study drug because of an adverse event. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS DOLOMITES, 1517-CL-0610 [NCT02021318]; HIMALAYAS, FGCL-4592-063 [NCT02052310]; SIERRAS, FGCL-4592-064 [NCT02273726]; and ROCKIES, D5740C00002 [NCT02174731].
Study details
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine