OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) versus topical vasoconstrictors in the management of epistaxis via a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were followed for the meta-analysis. We systematically searched Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and PubMed for randomized controlled trials (from
inception to August 2022; no language restrictions), comparing the effect of topical TXA and topical vasoconstrictors on the treatment of epistaxis. The Q test was used to evaluate heterogeneity, and funnel plots were utilized to identify bias. For the meta-analysis, the fixed-effects model was employed, and the t-test was utilized to determine significance. RESULTS Of 1012 identified studies, 5 were found to be eligible for our analysis. In total, 598 patients were included; 297 of them received TXA and 301 received vasoconstrictors. Hemostasis was more likely to be achieved at the first re-assessment in patients treated with TXA. Subgroup analysis indicated patients treated with TXA to have less likelihood of bleeding recurrence, compared to patients treated with vasoconstrictors. The detected time interval of rebleeding was 10 min, between 24h to 72h, and after 7 days, respectively, and the differences were significant between the two groups of patients treated with TXA and vasoconstrictors. CONCLUSION Topical TXA was associated with better post-treatment hemorrhagic arrest rates compared to topical vasoconstrictors in the management of epistaxis.