Safety and Efficacy of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

Department of Internal Medicine, St. Mary's and St. Clare's Hospitals, New York Medical College, Denville, NJ 07834, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, BronxCare Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10457, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Michael's Medical Center, New York Medical College, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. Department of Pediatrics, Dubai Medical College for Girls, Dubai 20170, United Arab Emirates. Department of Internal Medicine, Albany Medical Center Hospital, Albany, NY 12208, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, Mercy Hospital Fort Smith, Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Smith, AR 72903, USA. Department of Hematology/Oncology, St. Mary's General Hospital, New York Medical College, Passaic, NJ 07102, USA.

Journal of xenobiotics. 2023;13(1):29-41
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Abstract
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired antibody or cell-mediated platelet damage or decreased platelet production. Steroids, IV immunoglobulins (IVIG), and Rho-anti-D antibodies are the commonly used initial treatments for ITP. However, many ITP patients either do not respond or do not maintain a response to initial therapy. Splenectomy, rituximab, and thrombomimetics are the commonly used second-line treatment. More treatment options include tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKI), including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors. This review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of TKIs. Methods: Literature was searched on PubMed, Embase, WOS, and clinicaltrials.gov using keywords, "tyrosine kinase" and "idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura". PRISMA guidelines were followed. Results: In total, 4 clinical trials were included with 255 adult patients with relapsed/refractory ITP. In all, 101 (39.6%) patients were treated with fostamatinib, 60 (23%) patients with rilzabrutinib, and 34 (13%) with HMPL-523. Patients treated with fostamatinib achieved a stable response (SR) and overall response (OR) in 18/101 (17.8%) and 43/101 (42.5%) of the patients, respectively, while SR and OR were achieved in 1/49 (2%) and 7/49 (14%) of the patients, respectively, in the placebo group. Patients treated with HMPL-523 (300 mg dose expansion) achieved an SR and OR in 5/20 (25%) and 11/20 (55%) of the patients, respectively, while SR and OR were achieved in 1/11 (9%) of the patients treated with the placebo. Patients treated with rilzabrutinib achieved an SR in 17/60 (28%) patients. Dizziness (1%), hypertension (2%), diarrhea (1%), and neutropenia (1%) were serious adverse events in fostamatinib patients. Rilzabrutinib or HMPL-523 patients did not require a dose reduction due to drug-related adverse effects. Conclusions: Rilzabrutinib, fostamatinib, and HMPL-523 were safe and effective in the treatment of relapsed/refractory ITP.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine