Background and Objectives: Recently, the clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained popularity for the treatment of degenerative disc diseases. However, the regenerative effects and factors associated with treatment outcomes after intradiscal injection of PRP remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate time-dependent changes in imaging findings related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and to identify factors associated with
the outcomes of PRP injection therapy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of a previous randomized clinical trial of intradiscal injection of the releasate isolated from PRP (PRPr) in patients with discogenic low back pain (LBP) was performed. Radiographic parameters (segmental angulation and lumbar lordosis) and MRI phenotypes, including Modic changes, disc bulge, and high-intensity zones (HIZs), were evaluated at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-injection. Treatment outcomes were evaluated based on the degree of LBP and LBP-related disability at 12 months post-injection. Results: A total of 15 patients (mean age: 33.9 ± 9.5 years) were included in this study. Radiographic parameters showed no significant changes after the PRPr injection. There were no remarkable changes in the prevalence or type of MRI phenotype. Treatment outcomes were significantly improved after treatment; however, the number of targeted discs and the presence of posterior HIZs at baseline were significantly but negatively associated with treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Intradiscal injection of PRPr significantly improved LBP and LBP-related disability 12 months post-injection; however, patients with multiple target lesions or posterior HIZs at baseline were significantly associated with poor treatment outcomes.