Departament Infermeria Fonamental i Medicoquirúrgica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Enfermera Investigación, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Spain. Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Hospital Universitario Clínico San Cecilio, Granada, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. Bibliotecaria, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Spain. Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, Spain; Departamento de Enfermería, Facultad de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
BACKGROUND Anemia associated with blood extraction for diagnostic purposes is a highly prevalent entity in intensive care units (ICU) for adults. The evidence recommends its prevention through different strategies, among which we can find the use of closed blood sampling systems (CBSS). Different experimental studies support the use of these devices. OBJECTIVE To identify knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness of
CBSS in ICU patients. METHODS Scoping review with search in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Institute databases, between September-2021 and September-2022. No time, language, or other limits were applied to ensure the recovery of all relevant studies. Gray literature sources: DART-Europe, OpenGrey and Google Scholar. Two researchers independently reviewed titles and abstracts and assessed full texts against the inclusion criteria. The following data was extracted for each study: design and sample, inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables, type of CBSS, results and conclusions. RESULTS 18 articles were included in the final review, 11 clinical trials (RCTs) published between 1992 and 2014. Three systematic reviews were found, but they only analyzed the effect of CBSS in reducing blood loss, hemoglobin stabilization, and the need for transfusion. Five of the RCTs analyzed the risk of infection, one catheter complications, and two alterations in blood pressure readings. CONCLUSIONS The use of CBSS is recommended to reduce blood loss in ICUs. However, there are discrepancies about their ability to prevent anemia and/or the need for blood transfusion. Its use does not increase catheter-related infection rates or alter the measurement of mean arterial pressure.