Safety Endpoints With Vadadustat Versus Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients With Non-Dialysis-Dependent CKD: A Post Hoc Regional Analysis of the PRO(2)TECT Randomized Clinical Trial of ESA-Naïve Patients

Section of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Excellentis Clinical Trial Consultants, South Africa. Akebia Therapeutics Inc, Cambridge, MA. Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA. Department of Nephrology and Medical Intensive Care, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Department of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD. Truth for Health Foundation, Tucson, AZ. Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

Kidney medicine. 2023;5(7):100666
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RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE Prespecified analyses of the PRO(2)TECT trials comparing the safety of the oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor vadadustat with darbepoetin alfa in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) found no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; death from any cause or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke) among US patients and a higher risk among patients treated with vadadustat outside the United States. We investigated regional differences in MACE in the PRO(2)TECT trial that enrolled 1,751 patients previously untreated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. STUDY DESIGN Phase 3, global, open-label, randomized, active-controlled clinical trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent-untreated patients with anemia and NDD-CKD. INTERVENTION Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to receive vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa. OUTCOMES The primary safety end point was time to first MACE. Secondary safety end points included time to first expanded MACE (MACE plus hospitalization for heart failure or thromboembolic event, excluding vascular access thrombosis). RESULTS In the non-US/non-Europe region, there was a higher proportion of patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level of ≤10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the vadadustat group [96 (34.7%)] than in the darbepoetin alfa group [66 (24.0%)]. In this region, there were 21 excess MACEs reported in the vadadustat group [78 events (n=276)] versus the darbepoetin alfa [57 events (n=275)], including 13 excess noncardiovascular deaths, largely from kidney failure. Noncardiovascular deaths were concentrated in Brazil and South Africa, which enrolled higher proportions of patients with an eGFR of ≤10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and who may not have had access to dialysis. LIMITATIONS Different regional treatment patterns of patients with NDD-CKD. CONCLUSIONS The higher MACE rate in the non-US/non-Europe vadadustat group may have been partly because of imbalances in the baseline eGFR level in countries where dialysis was not uniformly available resulting in many kidney-related deaths.
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Language : eng
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