The appropriate surgical management of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) remains a challenge for foot and ankle surgeons. Currently, microfracture (MF) is the first-line operative treatment for small osteochondral lesions. However, the fibrous cartilage regenerated after MF is mechanically inferior to hyaline cartilage regeneration and is susceptible to deterioration over time. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to elucidate the efficacy
of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) augmentation compared with MF only or other adjuvant supplementations combined with the PRP + MF group (others) for the management of OLT. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for studies that compared the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent MF only and those who underwent PRP or other adjuvant materials such as hyaluronic acid or BST-CarGel. After the screening, four randomized controlled trials and one quasi-randomized controlled trial were included in this review. We used the following tools for clinical evaluation: the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Ankle-Hindfoot Scale score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pain, and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) score. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to analyze the differences in outcomes between groups. Patients in the PRP + MF group had superior final VAS and AOFAS scores to the MF only group. (both p < 0.01) However, no significant improvements between baseline and final follow-up were noted in either score. In addition, there was no remarkable difference in the overall FAAM pain measures between the two groups. The PRP + MF and others groups revealed no significant effect differences in the clinical scores. The results of this analysis suggest that PRP + MF would be more favorable and effective than MF only or additional adjuvant supplementation.