ECMO in adult patients with severe trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Emergency Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Emergency Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. cxfyx@njmu.edu.cn. Emergency Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. jxl2753@njmu.edu.cn.

European journal of medical research. 2023;28(1):412
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Abstract
BACKGROUND Severe trauma can result in cardiorespiratory failure, and when conventional treatment is ineffective, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can serve as an adjunctive therapy. However, the indications for ECMO in trauma cases are uncertain and clinical outcomes are variable. This study sought to describe the prognosis of adult trauma patients requiring ECMO, aiming to inform clinical decision-making and future research. METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted on Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus databases until March 13, 2023, encompassing relevant studies involving over 5 trauma patients (aged ≥ 16 years) requiring ECMO support. The primary outcome measure was survival until discharge, with secondary measures including length of stay in the ICU and hospital, ECMO duration, and complications during ECMO. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to analyze these outcomes. The study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, while the certainty of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. RESULTS The meta-analysis comprised 36 observational studies encompassing 1822 patients. The pooled survival rate was 65.9% (95% CI 61.3-70.5%). Specifically, studies focusing on traumatic brain injury (TBI) (16 studies, 383 patients) reported a survival rate of 66.1% (95% CI 55.4-76.2%), while studies non-TBI (15 studies, 262 patients) reported a survival rate of 68.1% (95% CI 56.9-78.5%). No significant difference was observed between these two survival comparisons (p = 0.623). Notably, studies utilizing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) (15 studies, 39.0%, 95% CI 23.3-55.6%) demonstrated significantly lower survival rates than those using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) (23 studies, 72.3%, 95% CI 63.2-80.7%, p < 0.001). The graded assessment of evidence provided a high degree of certainty regarding the pooled survival. CONCLUSIONS ECMO is now considered beneficial for severely traumatized patients, improving prognosis and serving as a valuable tool in managing trauma-related severe cardiorespiratory failure, haemorrhagic shock, and cardiac arrest.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine