Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Maxillofacial Surgery and Dental Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Via della Commenda 10, 20122 Milan, Italy.
The extraction of impacted third molars is a common but potentially complication-prone oral surgical procedure. Wound healing plays a vital role in preventing complications. This scoping review aimed to assess the clinical and microbiological aspects of various suture materials and cyanoacrylates. Unlike existing studies, we included more articles and comprehensively compared suture materials. Articles published in languages other than English;
duplicate studies; studies deemed irrelevant for the specific research questions, including those analyzing different supplementary treatments or not corresponding to the abstract's content; ex vivo or experimental animal studies; studies lacking approval from an ethics committee; and narrative reviews, systematic reviews, or systematic and meta-analysis reviews were excluded. Thus, only 17 studies, published between 2000 and 2023, were included in the search. Suture techniques varied among surgeons, with debates on primary and secondary closure methods. A comparison of different suture materials and their effects on wound healing, infection rates, and other factors was described. Cyanoacrylate has also been used as an alternative to traditional sutures. Microbiological analysis showed varying bacterial adhesion based on the suture material, with silk sutures retaining more microbes than PTFE sutures. Clinical assessments have revealed differing inflammatory responses that affect wound healing and complications. Cyanoacrylate has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional sutures, owing to its rapid polymerization and early healing. However, the choice of suture material in impacted third molar surgery remains controversial, considering microbiological factors and clinical outcomes. More extensive randomized clinical trials are required to better understand the effect of suture materials on surgical outcomes and potential improvements. This study could enhance the safety and effectiveness of this common oral surgical procedure.