Effects of albumin and crystalloid priming strategies on red blood cell transfusions in on-pump cardiac surgery: a network meta-analysis

Department of Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 167 Beilishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 10010, China. Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Department of Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 167 Beilishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 10010, China. jibingyang@fuwai.com.

BMC anesthesiology. 2024;24(1):26
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PICO Summary

Population

Adult patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (10 randomised controlled trials).

Intervention

Network meta-analysis (NMA) to perform direct comparisons, including albumin vs. artificial colloid and artificial colloid vs. crystalloid, and to obtain indirect evidence for the comparisons between albumin and crystalloid priming strategies.

Comparison

Outcome

Direct meta-analysis indicated that crystalloid priming significantly decreased total perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusions (MD -0.68U; 95% CI [-1.26, -0.09U]) and intraoperative RBC transfusions (MD -0.20U; 95% CI [-0.39, -0.01U]) compared to albumin. Postoperative RBC transfusions showed a decreasing trend in the crystalloid group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (MD -0.16U; 95% CI: [-0.45, 0.14U]). After including indirect evidence, the NMA results continued to demonstrate a higher RBC receiving with the albumin priming strategy compared to crystalloids, although the differences did not reach statistical significance.
Abstract
BACKGROUND In on-pump cardiac surgery, the albumin priming strategy could maintain colloid osmotic pressure better than crystalloid solutions and reduce excessive perioperative fluid balance. However, a high-quality meta-analysis is required to compare the safety of these approaches in perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Owing to limited direct evidence, we conducted a network meta-analysis (NMA) to increase the pool of studies and provide indirect evidence. METHODS The pre-defined primary outcomes were intraoperative and the first 24 h postoperative RBC transfusion volume in units. The pre-defined secondary outcome was postoperative blood loss (the first 24 h). We reviewed all randomized controlled trials comparing albumin, crystalloid, and artificial colloid priming strategies. Studies that only displayed pre-defined outcomes could be included. A pairwise meta-analysis was performed on studies that directly compared the pre-defined outcomes between albumin and crystalloids. Additionally, a random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA) model was employed to generate indirect evidence for the pre-defined outcomes between albumin and crystalloids. RESULTS The literature search identified 830 studies,10 of which were included in the final analysis. Direct meta-analysis indicated that crystalloid priming significantly decreased total perioperative RBC transfusions (MD: -0.68U; 95%CI: -1.26, -0.09U; P = 0.02) and intraoperative RBC transfusions (MD: -0.20U; 95%CI: -0.39, -0.01U; P = 0.03) compared to albumin. Postoperative RBC transfusions showed a decreasing trend in the crystalloid group; however, the difference was not statistically significant. (MD: -0.16U; 95%CI: -0.45, 0.14U; P = 0.30). After including indirect evidence, the NMA results continued to demonstrate a higher RBC receiving with the albumin priming strategy compared to crystalloids, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. For postoperative blood loss, direct evidence showed no significant differences between albumin and crystalloid priming strategies. However, NMA evidence displayed that albumin exist higher probability of reducing postoperative blood loss than crystalloid. CONCLUSION Both direct and NMA evidence indicated that the albumin priming strategy resulted in more perioperative RBC transfusions than crystalloids. Considering the additional blood management burden, the application of an albumin-priming strategy in on-pump cardiac surgery still needs more consideration.
Study details
Study Design : Systematic Review
Language : eng
Credits : Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine