Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;19(12)
A reliable estimate of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies is increasingly important to track the spread of infection and define the true burden of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted with the objective of estimating the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa. A systematic search of the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar electronic databases was conducted. Thirty-five eligible studies were included. Using meta-analysis of proportions, the overall seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was calculated as 16% (95% CI 13.1-18.9%). Based on antibody isotypes, 14.6% (95% CI 12.2-17.1%) and 11.5% (95% CI 8.7-14.2%) were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM, respectively, while 6.6% (95% CI 4.9-8.3%) were tested positive for both IgM and IgG. Healthcare workers (16.3%) had higher seroprevalence than the general population (11.7%), blood donors (7.5%) and pregnant women (5.7%). The finding of this systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) may not accurately reflect the true seroprevalence status of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa, hence, further seroprevalence studies across Africa are required to assess and monitor the growing COVID-19 burden.
Seroprevalence of COVID-19 in Blood Donors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Advances in virology. 2022;2022:9342680
INTRODUCTION Determining the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in blood donors makes the control of virus circulation possible in healthy people and helps implement strategies to reduce virus transmission. The purpose of the study was to examine the seroprevalence of COVID-19 in blood donors using systematic review and meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar search engine were searched using standard keywords up to 2022-04-26. The variance of each study was calculated according to the binomial distribution. Studies were combined according to the sample size and variance. Q Cochrane test and I2 index were used to examine the heterogeneity of the studies. Data analysis was performed in STATA 14 software, and the significance level of the tests was P < 0.05. RESULTS In the 28 papers examined with 227894 samples, the seroprevalence of COVID-19 in blood donors was 10% (95% CI: 9%, 11%), estimated 5% (95% CI: 4%, 7%) among men and 6% (95% CI: 4%, 7%) among women. This rate in different blood groups was as follows: A 12% (95% CI: 10%-14%), B 12% (95% CI: 10%-15%), AB 9% (95% CI: 7%-12%), and O 13% (95% CI: 11%-16%). The seroprevalence of COVID-19 in blood donors in North America 10%, Europe 7%, Asia 23%, South America 5%, and Africa was 4%; Moreover, the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was estimated to be 23% (95% CI: 18%-29%) and IgM 29% (95% CI: 9%-49%). CONCLUSION The highest prevalence of COVID-19 serum in women blood donors was among blood group O and Asia. The seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies was high too.
Impact of serological and PCR testing requirements on the selection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma is undergoing randomized trials as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19 infection. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the determination of donor eligibility and experiences with donor selection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in New York to select plasma donors for a randomized, double-blind, controlled convalescent plasma trial. Clearance for donation required successful completion of an online questionnaire and an in-person screening visit, which included (a) completion of a Donor Health Questionnaire (DHQ), (b) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody testing using an immunochromatographic anti- severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test, (c) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing if <28 days from symptom resolution, and (d) routine blood bank testing. RESULTS After receiving 3093 online questionnaires, 521 individuals presented for in-person screening visits, with 40.1% (n = 209) fully qualifying. Subjects (n = 312) failed to progress due to the following reasons: disqualifying answer from DHQ (n = 30, 9.6%), insufficient antibodies (n = 198, 63.5%), persistent positive PCR tests (n = 14, 4.5%), and blood donation testing labs (n = 70, 22.4%). Importantly, 24.6% and 11.1% of potential donors who reported having PCR-diagnosed infection had low or undetectable SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, respectively. Surprisingly, 62.9% (56/89) of subjects had positive PCR tests 14-27 days after symptom resolution, with 13 individuals continuing to be PCR positive after 27 days. CONCLUSION It is feasible for a single site to fully qualify a large number of convalescent plasma donors in a short period of time. Among otherwise qualified convalescent plasma donors, we found high rates of low or undetectable antibody levels and many individuals with persistently positive PCR tests.
Donors for SARS-CoV-2 Convalescent Plasma for a Controlled Clinical Trial: Donor Characteristics, Content and Time Course of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies
Transfusion Medicine & Hemotherapy. 2021;:1-10
Background: Convalescent plasma is one of the treatment options for COVID-19 which is currently being investigated in many clinical trials Understanding of donor and product characteristics is important for optimization of convalescent plasma Methods: Patients who had recovered from COVID-19 were recruited as donors for COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) for a randomized clinical trial of CCP for treatment of severe COVID-19 (CAPSID Trial) Titers of neutralizing antibodies were measured by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) Correlation of antibody titers with host factors and evolution of neutralizing antibody titers over time in repeat donors were analysed Results: A series of 144 donors (41% females, 59% males;median age 40 years) underwent 319 plasmapheresis procedures providing a median collection volume of 850 mL and a mean number of 2 7 therapeutic units per plasmapheresis The majority of donors had a mild or moderate course of COVID-19 The titers of neutralizing antibodies varied greatly between CCP donors (from 1:640) Donor factors (gender, age, ABO type, body weight) did not correlate significantly with the titer of neutralizing antibodies We observed a significant positive correlation of neutralization titers with the number of reported COVID-19 symptoms and with the time from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis to plasmapheresis Neutralizing antibody levels were stable or increased over time in 58% of repeat CCP donors Mean titers of neutralizing antibodies of first donation and last donation of repeat CCP donors did not differ significantly (1:86 at first compared to 1:87 at the last donation) There was a significant correlation of neutralizing antibodies measured by PRNT and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies which were measured by ELISA CCP donations with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody content above the 25th percentile were substantially enriched for CCP donations with higher neutralizing antibody levels Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of collection of a large number of CCP products under a harmonized protocol for a randomized clinical trial Titers of neutralizing antibodies were stable or increased over time in a subgroup of repeat donors A history of higher number of COVID-19 symptoms and higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies in immunoassays can preselect donations with higher neutralizing capacity [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Transfusion Medicine & Hemotherapy is the property of Karger AG and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use This abstract may be abridged No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract (Copyright applies to all Abstracts )
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in blood donors from the Lodi Red Zone and adjacent Lodi metropolitan and suburban area
Clin. microbiol. infect. 2021
OBJECTIVES To define the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood donors (referred to the first lockdown area (Lodi Red-Zone) of the Lombardy region and in a contiguous area that was not included in the first lockdown); to define the agreement between a commercial serological assay and a reference microneutralization assay; and to evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in a cohort of blood donors. METHODS Blood donors referred to the first lockdown area in Lombardy Region and the neighbouring area were analysed for SARS-CoV-2 IgG-specific antibodies during the period 18 March to 24 June 2020. Serum samples were analysed using both a chemiluminescent immunoassay (LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, DiaSorin) for the quantitative characterization of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies and a neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) assay. RESULTS In the period from 18 March to 24 June, 1922 blood donors were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG showing a prevalence of 378/1922 (19.7%). A subgroup of 1139 blood donors were tested in parallel with a SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and a microneutralization assay showing a prevalence of 22.2% and 21.6%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification was correlated with NT-Abs titres. In 78.2% of participants the NT-Abs titre was maintained, but in 15.8% it decreased by one four-fold dilution and in 6.0% it increased by one four-fold dilution. CONCLUSIONS The duration of immunity of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the course of the pandemic and for this reason the monitoring of NT Abs is important. Despite a stable NT-Abs titre being observed in the majority of blood donors, our findings need to be validated in a long-term period of follow up.
Blood Donations and Transfusions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain: Impact According to Autonomous Communities and Hospitals
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(7):3480-3480
Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a decline in blood donations, between 30% and 70% in some of the most affected countries In Spain, during the initial eight weeks after the State of Emergency was decreed on 14 March 2020, in the weekly reports of the Health Ministry, an average decrease of 20% was observed between 11 and week 25 compared with the 2018 donation We aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood donations and blood distribution in four autonomous communities, and to explore the evolution of the consumption of blood components (BCs) in ten hospitals of six autonomous communities We performed a prospective study of grouped cohorts on the donation and distribution of blood in four regional transfusion centers in four autonomous communities in Spain, and a retrospective study of the consumption of blood components in ten hospitals in six autonomous communities Regarding donations, there was no significant decrease in donations, with differences between autonomous communities, which started between 1 and 15 March 2020 (−11%) The increase in donations in phase II (from 26 May 2020) stands out Regarding consumption, there was a significant reduction in the consumption of packed red blood cells (RBCs) (24 5%), plasma (45 3%), and platelets (25 3%) in the central period (16 March–10 May) The reduction in the consumption of RBCs was significant in the period from 1–15 March Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the donation and consumption of BCs
SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in blood products from patients with COVID-19 is not associated with infectious virus
Wellcome Open Research. 2020;5:181
Background: Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (the cause of COVID-19) uses PCR to detect viral RNA (vRNA) in respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other sample types, but there is limited understanding of the clinical or laboratory significance of its detection in blood. Methods: We undertook a systematic literature review to assimilate the evidence for the frequency of vRNA in blood, and to identify associated clinical characteristics. We performed RT-PCR in serum samples from a UK clinical cohort of acute and convalescent COVID-19 cases (n=212), together with convalescent plasma samples collected by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) (n=462 additional samples). To determine whether PCR-positive blood samples could pose an infection risk, we attempted virus isolation from a subset of RNA-positive samples. Results: We identified 28 relevant studies, reporting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 0-76% of blood samples; pooled estimate 10% (95%CI 5-18%). Among serum samples from our clinical cohort, 27/212 (12.7%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by RT-PCR. RNA detection occurred in samples up to day 20 post symptom onset, and was associated with more severe disease (multivariable odds ratio 7.5). Across all samples collected ≥28 days post symptom onset, 0/494 (0%, 95%CI 0-0.7%) had vRNA detected. Among our PCR-positive samples, cycle threshold (ct) values were high (range 33.5-44.8), suggesting low vRNA copy numbers. PCR-positive sera inoculated into cell culture did not produce any cytopathic effect or yield an increase in detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA. There was a relationship between RT-PCR negativity and the presence of total SARS-CoV-2 antibody (p=0.02). Conclusions: vRNA was detectable at low viral loads in a minority of serum samples collected in acute infection, but was not associated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 (within the limitations of the assays used). This work helps to inform biosafety precautions for handling blood products from patients with current or previous COVID-19.
COVID-19 patients (28 studies with 212 acute and convalescent COVID-19 serum samples and with 462 convalescent plasma samples).
Evaluation of the frequency of viral RNA (vRNA) in blood, and to identify associated clinical characteristics, through a systematic literature review.
The included studies reported SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 0-76% of blood samples. Among the acute and convalescent COVID-19 serum samples, 27/212 (12.7%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by RT-PCR. RNA detection occurred in samples up to day 20 post symptom onset, and was associated with more severe disease. Across all samples collected ≥28 days post symptom onset, 0/494 (0%) had vRNA detected. Among the convalescent COVID-19 serum PCR-positive samples, cycle threshold values were high (range 33.5-44.8), suggesting low vRNA copy numbers. PCR-positive sera inoculated into cell culture did not produce any cytopathic effect or yield an increase in detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA. There was a relationship between RT-PCR negativity and the presence of total SARS-CoV-2 antibody.
Blood Donor Recruitment in Guangzhou, China, during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Epidemic
BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic affected blood collection in Guangzhou, China. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This paper included three studies. The observational study reported the trends of blood collection during the epidemic in Guangzhou, China. The cross-sectional survey investigated factors influencing blood donation during the COVID-19 epidemic, and a self-administered questionnaire was given to 1,584 street whole blood donors (SWBDs) who donated during the epidemic. The randomized controlled trial involved 19,491 SWBDs who donated in 2019 but did not donate during the epidemic. Trial participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups: group 1 completed Questionnaire 1, which contained precautionary measures in response to COVID-19 and other messages about blood donation during the epidemic; and group 2 completed Questionnaire 2, which did not include this information. A control group did not receive any questionnaire. RESULTS As measures implemented, the number of blood donors increased accordingly. Both first-time and repeat SWBDs perceived the same level of blood need and donated blood because it would save lives. SWBDs who completed Questionnaire 1 expressed a greater intention to donate during the epidemic. Enabling blood donors to perceive a higher level of blood need and a lower level of COVID-19 infection risk related to blood donation mobilized experienced SWBDs to donate within three weeks. Intention-to-treat analyses and average-treatment-effect-on-the-treated estimations confirmed that Questionnaire 1 could motivate SWBDs to actually donate blood. CONCLUSION Various measures could ease blood shortage during the COVID-19 epidemic. Administration of Questionnaire 1 could increase blood donations during the epidemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.