Ferric carboxymaltose for patients with heart failure and iron deficiency in Italy: cost-effectiveness and budget impact
Journal of comparative effectiveness research. 2019
Aim: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) versus placebo for the management of iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure in the Italian healthcare system and to estimate its impact on the national healthcare budget. Materials & methods: A Markov model was developed to project costs and health outcomes over 1 year, based on data from literature. Healthcare resources consumption was derived from an e-survey administered to clinicians. Costs were obtained from official tariffs. Results: Treatment with FCM represents a dominant strategy compared with placebo, leading to national budget annual savings of 20-97 million Euros, according to different increasing utilization rates. Conclusion: FCM is a cost-saving option for the treatment of chronic heart failure patients with iron deficiency in Italy.
Chronic heart failure (CHF) patients in the Italian healthcare system.
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) for the management of iron deficiency. A Markov model was developed to project costs and health outcomes over 1 year.
Treatment with FCM represents a dominant strategy compared with placebo, leading to national budget annual savings of 20-97 million Euros.
Economic Burden and Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Current Treatments for Anaemia in Patients with CKD not on Dialysis: A Systematic Review
PharmacoEconomics - open. 2019
BACKGROUND The cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden associated with treatments for anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well characterized among non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) patients. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to review the literature on costs and HRQoL associated with current treatments for anaemia of CKD among NDD patients. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, NHS EED, and NHS HTA databases were searched for original studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 17 March 2017. The following inclusion criteria were applied: adult population; primary focus was anaemia of CKD; patients received iron supplementation, red blood cell transfusion, or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs); and reported results on HRQoL and/or costs. Studies that included NDD patients, did not compare different treatments, and had relevant designs were retained. HRQoL and cost outcomes were summarized in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria: six randomized controlled trials, four prospective single-arm trials, three retrospective studies, one prospective observational study, one simulation study, and one cross-sectional survey. All included ESAs. Treatment of anaemia (compared with no treatment) was associated with HRQoL improvements in five of six studies and lower costs in four of four studies. Treatment aiming for higher haemoglobin targets (compared with lower targets) resulted in modest HRQoL improvements, higher healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and higher costs. CONCLUSIONS In NDD patients, untreated anaemia of CKD leads to higher costs, higher HRU, and lower HRQoL compared with initiating anaemia treatment. Relative to aiming for lower haemoglobin targets with ESAs, higher targets conferred modest HRQoL improvements and were associated with higher HRU.
A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of patient blood management
Blood Transfusion = Trasfusione Del Sangue. 2018;:1-17.
BACKGROUND Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary concept focused on the management of anaemia, minimisation of iatrogenic blood loss and rational use of allogeneic blood products. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyse post-operative outcome in patients with liberal vs restrictive exposure to allogeneic blood products and (ii) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PBM in patients undergoing surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed to compare post-operative complications in predominantly non-transfused patients (restrictive transfusion group) and patients who received one to three units of red blood cells (liberal transfusion group). Outcome measures included sepsis with/without pneumonia, acute renal failure, acute myocardial infarction and acute stroke. In a second step, a health economic model was developed to calculate cost-effectiveness of PBM (PBM-arm vs control-arm) for simulated cohorts of 10,000 cardiac and non-cardiac surgical patients based on the results of the meta-analysis and costs. RESULTS Out of 478 search results, 22 studies were analysed in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of any complication in the restrictive transfusion group was 0.43 for non-cardiac and 0.34 for cardiac surgical patients. In the simulation model, PBM was related to reduced complications (1,768 vs 1,245) and complication-related deaths (411 vs 304) compared to standard care. PBM-related costs of therapy exceeded costs of the control arm by euro 150 per patient. However, total costs, including hospitalisation, were higher in the control-arm for both non-cardiac (euro 2,885.11) and cardiac surgery patients (euro 1,760.69). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio including hospitalisation showed savings of euro 30,458 (non-cardiac and cardiac surgery patients) for preventing one complication and euro 128,023 (non-cardiac and cardiac surgery patients) for prevention of one complication-related death in the PBM-arm. DISCUSSION Our results indicate that PBM may be associated with fewer adverse clinical outcomes compared to control management and may, thereby, be cost-effective.
Cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in anemia
Clinicoeconomics & Outcomes Research. 2014;6:319-30.
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the mainstay of anemia therapy. Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is a highly effective, long-acting ESA developed for once-monthly dosing. A multitude of clinical studies has evaluated the safety and efficiency of this treatment option for patients with renal anemia. In times of permanent financial pressure on health care systems, the cost-effectiveness of CERA should be of particular importance for payers and clinicians. OBJECTIVE To critically analyze, from the nephrologists' point of view, the published literature focusing on the cost-effectiveness of CERA for anemia treatment. METHODS The detailed literature search covered electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase, as well as international conference abstract databases. RESULTS Peer-reviewed literature analyzing the definite cost-effectiveness of CERA is scarce, and most of the available data originate from conference abstracts. Identified data are restricted to the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease. Although the majority of studies suggest a considerable cost advantage for CERA, the published literature cannot easily be compared. While time and motion studies clearly indicate that a switch to CERA could minimize health care staff time in dialysis units, the results of studies comparing direct costs are more ambivalent, potentially reflecting the differences between health care systems and variability between centers. CONCLUSION Analyzed data are predominantly insufficient; they miss clear evidence and have to thus be interpreted with great caution. In this day and age of financial restraints, results from well-designed, head-to-head studies with clearly defined endpoints have to prove whether CERA therapy can achieve cost savings without compromising anemia management.
Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the Department of Neurology at Ninewells Hospital, 2008-2009: Indications for utilization and cost-effectiveness
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2010;13((4):):271-5.
This study was designed to identify the indications for prescription of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in neurology and the cost effectiveness of this therapy. OBJECTIVES IVIg is a relatively costly therapy and the annual budget spent on providing this therapy for various indications at Ninewells Hospital was close to 1.5 million. In today's economic times, a cost-benefit analysis of all therapies is prudent. This is of relevance to countries in the developing world as well where perhaps not everybody could afford such cost-intensive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS We audited 2 time periods over 12 months each in 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 to look at the patterns of utilization of IVIg over these periods. We searched the literature for alternative and cost-effective therapies for the most common indications for use of IVIg. RESULTS Fiscal costs on prescription of IVIg have rocketed up by almost 300% in this Neurology Department comparing data from 2004-2005 vs 2008-2009 and this is disproportionate to the increase in the annual admission rate (bed usage), partly because of the soaring costs of the drug available in the market and also because of the increased prescription of IVIg for numerous indications where clinical trials data are yet not so robust. CONCLUSION We have looked at the cost of alternative therapies and offer some proposals that if implemented could potentially save 330,000 annually from the health budget at this NHS Trust. Perhaps similar models could evolve for better cost-effective utilization of IVIg in countries in the developing world where health budgeting is more acutely relevant.
Probabilistic cost-minimisation analysis of darbepoetin alpha versus epoetin alpha in treating anaemia secondary to chronic renal failure. Assessment in Spanish clinical practice
Farmacia Hospitalaria. 2009;33((4):):208-16.
INTRODUCTION The direct transfer of the results of pharmaco-economic studies between countries may not be suitable if the proper adaptations are not made to take into account differences in treatment patterns, resource use and costs from country to country. OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost in Spain of treating anaemia secondary to chronic renal failure with darbepoetin alpha or epoetin alpha from a review and analysis of available current information. In addition, the role of the route of administration as a main driver of the cost will be analysed. METHOD population: patients with chronic kidney failure induced anaemia. Data: Medline and Embase search of studies directly comparing erythropoiesis stimulating agents. ANALYSIS Cost minimization analysis from the perspective of a hospital pharmacy department. The main outcome chosen was the difference between the average cost per patient undergoing a 30-day treatment with epoetin alpha versus darbepoetin alpha. RESULTS (a) haemodialysis: changing from epoetin alpha to darbepoetin alpha is associated with a cost reduction of 8.67%; CI 95%, -1.34 to 17.92 (euro 17.48; CI 95%, -2.70 to 36.13); probabilistic analysis showed that the use of darbepoetin alpha could be associated with a cost-saving probability of 94.9%. The IV administration yielded a decrease in costs of about 16.00%; CI 95%, -2.38 to 36.77 (euro 41.78, CI 95%: -6.21 to 96.04). (b) Pre-dialysis: darbepoetin alpha is associated with a cost reduction of about 11-32%. CONCLUSIONS The use of darbepoetin alpha for the treatment of chronic renal failure induced anaemia (haemodialysis and pre-dialysis) shows higher cost efficiency than epoetin alpha in Spain; these differences increase with IV administration.
The cost-effectiveness of maintaining higher hemoglobin targets with erythropoietin in hemodialysis patients
Kidney International. 2003;64((1):):295-304.
Albumin versus crystalloid therapy in the management of hepatorenal syndrome: a model for using meta analysis in cost effectiveness studies and the design of clinical trials
AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. 2003;:970.
Meta-analysis of subcutaneous versus intravenous epoetin in maintenance treatment of anemia in hemodialysis patients
American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2002;40((3):):439-46.