Etanercept with IVIg for acute Kawasaki disease: a long-term follow-up on the EATAK trial
Cardiology in the young. 2022;:1-6
BACKGROUND The Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease, a phase-3 clinical trial, showed that etanercept reduced the prevalence of IVIg resistance in acute Kawasaki disease. In patients who presented with coronary artery involvement, it reduced the maximal size and short-term progression of coronary artery dilation. Following up with this patient group, we evaluated the potential long-term benefit of etanercept for coronary disease. METHODS Patients were followed for at least 1 year after the trial. The size of dilated arteries (z-score ≥ 2.5) was measured at each follow-up visit. The z-score and size change from baseline were evaluated at each visit and compared between patients who received etanercept versus placebo at the initial trial. RESULTS Forty patients who received etanercept (22) or placebo (18) in the Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease trial were included. All patients showed a persistent decrease in coronary artery size measurement: 23.3 versus 5.9% at the 6-month visit, 24 versus 13.1% at the 1-year visit, and 20.8 versus 19.3% at the ≥ 2-year visit for etanercept or placebo, respectively, with similar results for decrease in coronary artery z-scores. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for patients' growth, a greater size reduction for patients on the etanercept arm versus placebo was proved significant for the 6-month (p = 0.005) and the 1-year visits (p = 0.019) with a similar end outcome at the ≥ 2-year visit. DISCUSSION Primary adjunctive therapy with etanercept for children with acute Kawasaki disease does not change the end outcome of coronary artery disease but may promote earlier resolution of artery dilation.
Pharmacologic interventions for Kawasaki disease in children: A network meta-analysis of 56 randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Although the current consensus recommends a standard treatment of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with high-dose aspirin to manage Kawasaki disease (KD), the use of different adjunctive therapies remains controversial. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different existing interventions for the initial and refractory stages of KD. METHODS An NMA of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using the frequentist model applied after electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, ClinicalKey, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science. The main outcomes were reduced fever duration/diminished severity of fever subsided. The initial stage of KD was defined as the first stage to treat patients with KD; the refractory stage of KD represents KD patients who failed to respond to standard KD treatment. The cut-off points for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were low (100-400 mg), medium (1 g), and high (at least 2 g). FINDINGS A total of fifty-six RCTs with 6486 participants were included. NMA demonstrated that the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [mean difference=-1.76 days (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): -3.65 to 0.13 days) compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the shortest fever duration; likewise, the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [odds ratio (OR)=0.50, 95% CIs: 0.18-1.37 compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the smallest incidence of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in the initial-stage KD. In the refractory-stage KD, the high-dosage IVIG + pulse steroid therapy (OR=0.04, 95% CIs: 0.00-0.43 compared to the high-dosage IVIG only) had the best rate of decline of fever; likewise, the high-dosage IVIG + ciclosporin [OR=0.05 (95% CIs: 0.00-1.21) compared to the high-dosage IVIG only] exhibited the smallest incidence of CAL. Infliximab significantly improved resolution compared to the high-dosage IVIG only group (OR=0.20, 95%CIs: 0.07-0.62) in refractory-stage KD. INTERPRETATION The NMA demonstrated that the combination therapy with the standard therapy of IVIG and aspirin might have an additional effect on shortening the duration of fever and lowering the CAL incidence rate in patients with acute KD. Moreover, the combination therapy with high-dose IVIG and pulse steroid therapy or cyclosporine therapy might have an additional effect on improving the rate of decline of fever and lowering the incidence rate of CAL in children with refractory KD. Because some of the findings of this NMA should be considered hypothesis-generating rather than confirmatory, further evidence from de novo randomised trials is needed to support our results. FUNDING None.
Corticosteroids for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;5:Cd011188
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD), or mucocutaneous syndrome, is the leading cause of childhood-acquired heart disease in high-income countries. There is much controversy on how best to treat children with KD and in particular who may benefit from additional treatment beyond the standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin, such as the addition of corticosteroids. This is an update of the review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of corticosteroid use on the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in KD as either first-line or second-line treatment. SEARCH METHODS The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and two trials registers to 8 February 2021. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles for additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We selected randomised controlled trials involving children with all severities of KD who were treated with corticosteroids, including different types of corticosteroids, different durations of treatment, and where corticosteroids were used alone or in conjunction with other accepted KD treatments. We included trials using corticosteroids for both first- and second-line treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data using standard Cochrane methods. We performed fixed-effect model meta-analyses with odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. The outcomes of interest were incidence of coronary artery abnormalities, serious adverse events, mortality, duration of acute symptoms (such as fever), time for laboratory parameters to normalise, length of hospital stay and longer-term coronary morbidity. MAIN RESULTS This update identified one new study, therefore the analysis included eight trials consisting of 1877 participants. Seven trials investigated the use of corticosteroids in first-line treatment and one investigated second-line treatment. The trials were all of good methodological quality. On pooled analysis, corticosteroid treatment reduced the subsequent occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.75; 8 studies, 986 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), without resultant serious adverse events (0 events; 6 studies, 737 participants; moderate-certainty) and mortality (0 events; 8 studies, 1075 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In addition, corticosteroids reduced the duration of fever (MD -1.34 days, 95% CI -2.24 to -0.45; 3 studies, 290 participants; low-certainty evidence), time for laboratory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) to normalise (MD -2.80 days, 95% CI -4.38 to -1.22; 1 study, 178 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and length of hospital stay (MD -1.01 days, 95% CI -1.72 to -0.30; 2 studies, 119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the included studies reported long-term (greater than one year after disease onset) coronary morbidity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Moderate-certainty evidence shows that use of steroids in the acute phase of KD can be associated with reduced coronary artery abnormalities, reduced inflammatory markers and shorter duration of hospital stay when compared to no corticosteroids. There were no serious adverse events or deaths reported with or without corticosteroid use. Low-certainty evidence shows use of corticosteroids can reduce duration of clinical symptoms (fever and rash). None of the included studies reported on long-term (greater than one year after disease onset) coronary morbidity. Evidence presented in this systematic review agrees with current clinical guidelines on the use of corticosteroids in the first-line treatment in KD.
Immunoglobulin for multifocal motor neuropathy
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;1(1):Cd004429
BACKGROUND Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare, probably immune-mediated disorder characterised by slowly progressive, asymmetric, distal weakness of one or more limbs with no objective loss of sensation. It may cause prolonged periods of disability. Treatment options for MMN are few. People with MMN do not usually respond to steroids or plasma exchange. Uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005, with an amendment in 2007. We updated the review to incorporate new evidence. OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin in people with MMN. SEARCH METHODS We searched the following databases on 20 April 2021: the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO ICTRP for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, and checked the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We considered RCTs and quasi-RCTs examining the effects of any dose of IVIg and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) in people with definite or probable MMN for inclusion in the review. Eligible studies had to have measured at least one of the following outcomes: disability, muscle strength, or electrophysiological conduction block. We used studies that reported the frequency of adverse effects to assess safety. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently reviewed the literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, assessed risk of bias of included studies, and extracted data. We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS Six cross-over RCTs including a total of 90 participants were suitable for inclusion in the review. Five RCTs compared IVIg to placebo, and one compared IVIg to SCIg. Four of the trials comparing IVIg versus placebo involved IVIg-naive participants (induction treatment). In the other two trials, participants were known IVIg responders receiving maintencance IVIg at baseline and were then randomised to maintenance treatment with IVIg or placebo in one trial, and IVIg or SCIg in the other. Risk of bias was variable in the included studies, with three studies at high risk of bias in at least one risk of bias domain. IVIg versus placebo (induction treatment): three RCTs including IVIg-naive participants reported a disability measure. Disability improved in seven out of 18 (39%) participants after IVIg treatment and in two out of 18 (11%) participants after placebo (risk ratio (RR) 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89 to 10.12; 3 RCTs, 18 participants; low-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants with an improvement in disability at 12 months was not reported. Strength improved in 21 out of 27 (78%) IVIg-naive participants treated with IVIg and one out of 27 (4%) participants who received placebo (RR 11.00, 95% CI 2.86 to 42.25; 3 RCTs, 27 participants; low-certainty evidence). IVIg treatment may increase the proportion of people with resolution of at least one conduction block; however, the results were also consistent with no effect (RR 7.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 51.70; 4 RCTs, 28 participants; low-certainty evidence). IVIg versus placebo (maintenance treatment): a trial that included participants on maintenance IVIg treatment reported an increase in disability in 17 out of 42 (40%) people switching to placebo and seven out of 42 (17%) remaining on IVIg (RR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13 to 5.24; 1 RCT, 42 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and a decrease in grip strength in 20 out of 42 (48%) participants after a switch to placebo treatment compared to four out of 42 (10%) remaining on IVIg (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.54; 1 RCT, 42 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events, IVIg versus placebo (induction or maintenance): four trials comparing IVIg and placebo reported adverse events, of which data from two studies could be meta-analysed. Transient side effects were reported in 71% of IVIg-treated participants versus 4.8% of placebo-treated participants in these studies. The pooled RR for the development of side effects was 10.33 (95% CI 2.15 to 49.77; 2 RCTs, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was only one serious side effect (pulmonary embolism) during IVIg treatment. IVIg versus SCIg (maintenance treatment): the trial that compared continuation of IVIg maintenance versus SCIg maintenance did not measure disability. The evidence was very uncertain for muscle strength (standardised mean difference 0.08, 95% CI -0.84 to 1.00; 1 RCT, 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence was very uncertain for the number of people with side effects attributable to treatment (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.40; 1 RCT, 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Low-certainty evidence from three small RCTs shows that IVIg may improve muscle strength in people with MMN, and low-certainty evidence indicates that it may improve disability; the estimate of the magnitude of improvement of disability has wide CIs and needs further studies to secure its significance. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, it is probable that most IVIg responders deteriorate in disability and muscle strength after IVIg withdrawal. SCIg might be an alternative treatment to IVIg, but the evidence is very uncertain. More research is needed to identify people in whom IVIg withdrawal is possible and to confirm efficacy of SCIg as an alternative maintenance treatment.
On the use of intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome - A systematic review and meta-analysis
Autoimmunity reviews. 2021;:102828
Observation on the clinical effect of high-dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin combined with low-dose prednisone acetate in the treatment of patients with Kawasaki Disease
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2021;37(4):1122-1127
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effect of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HDIVIG) single dose and pulse therapy combined with small-dose prednisone acetate in the treatment of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS Eighty patients with KD from Baoding Children's Hospital, China, were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group, each with 40 cases. Patients in the experimental group were treated with HDIVIG single dose, pulse therapy combined with low-dose prednisone acetate, while patients in the control group were treated with conventional-dose immunoglobulin. Patients in both groups were treated with aspirin orally, and given symptomatic treatment including anti-inflammatory, nutritional support, correction of water and electrolyte disturbance and acid-base balance. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn from all patients at the time of admission, Day-1, Day-7 and Day-14 after treatment, and in the basic state of getting up in the morning, and then the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other inflammatory factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The time of body temperature falling to normal, lymph node swelling recovery, hands and feet swelling, mucosal hyperemia regression after treatment in the two groups was recorded, and the treatment effect of the two groups was comprehensively evaluated. RESULTS After treatment, the levels of inflammatory factors such as TNF-a, CRP, IL-6 in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). In addition, the time of body temperature falling to normal, lymph node swelling recovery, hands and feet swelling, and mucosal hyperemia regression in the experimental group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (p=0.00). The effective rate of the experimental group was 95% and that of the control group was 80%, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.04). CONCLUSION HDIVIG single dose, pulse therapy combined with small-dose prednisone acetate has a favourable therapeutic effect in the treatment of patients with KD, by which the inflammatory factors can be significantly improved, clinical symptoms and weight can be quickly ameliorated, and therapeutic effect can be enhanced.
Patient Preferences for Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Administration of Treatment for Chronic Immune System Disorders: A Systematic Review
Patient preference and adherence. 2021;15:811-834
BACKGROUND For many chronic immune system disorders, the available treatments provide several options for route of administration. The objective of this systematic literature review is to inform discussions about therapy choices for individual patients by summarizing the available evidence regarding the preferences of patients with chronic immune system disorders for intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration. METHODS Searches of the MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were conducted using terms designed to capture studies reporting patient preferences between IV and SC therapy published in English. Relevant studies were limited to those in which mode of administration, including treatment frequency and setting, was the main difference between comparators. RESULTS In total, 49 studies were included in the review. Among 18 studies that compared IV and SC immunoglobulin therapy, 16 found patients to prefer the SC administration route. The results of the 31 studies comparing IV infusion and SC injection of non-immunoglobulin therapies were mixed, with patients favoring SC administration in 20, IV infusion in seven, and having no overall preference in four. Patient experience had a strong effect on preferences, with treatment-experienced patients preferring their current administration route in most studies. Patients preferring SC administration tended also to prefer treatment at home, mainly due to the convenience and comfort of home treatment and the avoidance of having to attend hospital. By contrast, patients preferring IV infusion tended to cite the lower treatment frequency and a dislike of self-injecting, and preferred hospital treatment, mainly due to the presence of healthcare professionals and resulting feelings of safety. CONCLUSION In general patients with chronic immune system disorders tend to be more likely to choose SC administration than IV infusion, but preferences may vary according among individuals. These findings may assist discussions around appropriate treatment choices for each patient.
Clinical Features in Children With Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736352
Objective: This study aimed to identify the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) in children. Methods: The case-control studies of KDSS and KD children up until April 30, 2021 were searched in multiple databases. The qualified research were retrieved by manually reviewing the references. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of male and female in children with KDSS. Children with KDSS compared with non-shocked KD, there were significant difference in age, duration of fever, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils (NEUT%), platelet count (PLT), c-reactive protein level (CRP), alanine transaminase concentration (ALT), aspartate transaminase concentration (AST), albumin concentration (ALB), sodium concentration (Na), ejection fraction, and length of hospitalization as well as the incidence of coronary artery dilation, coronary artery aneurysm, left ventricular dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, pericardial effusion, initial diagnosis of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and receiving second dose of IVIG, vasoactive drugs, hormones, and albumin. In contrast, there was no difference in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the incidence of conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal change, polymorphous rash, extremity change, and incomplete KD. Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that the children with KDSS had more severe indicators of inflammation and more cardiac abnormalities. These patients were resistant to immunoglobulin treatment and required extra anti-inflammatory treatment. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021241207.
Efficacy of infliximab in the treatment of Kawasaki disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2021;21(1):15
The present study aimed to review the relevant studies in order to determine the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) in the treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD). The relevant studies were retrieved using the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases. Key sources in the literature were reviewed; all articles published by July 2019 were considered for inclusion. For each study, odds ratios, mean difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were assessed to evaluate study outcomes. A total of 16 studies involving 429 patients were relevant to the questions of interest of the current meta-analysis. Compared with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), IFX or IFX plus IVIG significantly reduced the incidence of adverse events, including the number of patients with fever, changes in lip and oral cavity and/or cervical lymphadenopathy. The white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also reduced in the IFX or IFX plus IVIG group compared with those in the IVIG or polyethylene glycol-treated human immunoglobulin (VGIH) groups. The platelet counts, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and Z-scores were increased in the IFX or IFX plus IVIG groups compared with those in the IVIG or VGIH groups. In the single-arm studies, the incidence of coronary artery aneurysm was 0.150 (95% CI: 0.024, 0.277), the non-response rate was 0.097 (95% CI: 0.056, 0.138), and the incidence of adverse events was 0.156 (95% CI: 0.122, 0.190). IFX not only effectively reduced the incidence of fever, conjunctival injection, changes in lip and oral cavity and cervical lymphadenopathy polymorphous exanthema, but also the WBC, neutrophil, ALT and CRP levels. The platelet levels were increased in patients after the IFX therapy compared with patients in the IVIG or VGIH groups. IFX or IFX plus IVIG exhibited improved clinical efficacy in the treatment of KD compared with that of IVIG or VGIH. However, as a limited number of studies was included in the current study, the findings should be verified further.
Aneurysms in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a case-based review
Clinical rheumatology. 2021
To perform a review on patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who developed an aneurysm. A review of articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO dating from 1966 to October 2020 was conducted using the following search words: "Antiphospholipid syndrome" and "aneurysm." No language limitation was applied. This review includes 10 articles on APS patients and aneurysms entailing 14, including our additional case. Age varied from 20 to 76 years old, and female sex was predominant and presented in 54%. The arterial vessels compromised were aorta (n = 6), coronary (n = 2), hepatic (n = 2), renal (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (n = 2), and then splenic, superior mesenteric, pancreatic, retinal, jejunal, carotid, and pulmonary. Frequencies of antiphospholipid antibodies were described as follows: lupus anticoagulant (n = 6), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (n = 4), IgG and IgM anticardiolipin (n = 3), IgG anticardiolipin (n = 3), and antiphosphatidylserine (n = 2). The presence of APS manifestations was distributed as deep venous thrombosis (n = 4), recurrent abortions (n = 4), pulmonary embolism (n = 3), stroke, or transitory ischemic accident (n = 3), and then limb ischemia and thrombocytopenia. The therapies used in these patients were warfarin, antiplatelet agent, vascular surgery, heparin, hydroxychloroquine, coil embolism, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Regarding outcomes, 5 patients were alive, and 3 were dead. This article reviewed all published cases on APS and aneurysm and showed that women who presented with abortions and deep venous thromboses with a lupus anticoagulant are those patients more commonly affected by aneurysms in APS.