Comparative Study of Combination of Oral Tranexamic Acid With Modified Kligman's Formula Versus Oral Tranexamic Acid With Azelaic Acid 15% in the Treatment of Melasma
Background Melasma is a persistent skin condition affecting individuals of Asian, African, and Hispanic backgrounds. It causes dark patches on sun-exposed areas of the face. The exact causes are unclear, but UV light and hormonal factors play a role. Melasma significantly impacts physical appearance and quality of life, causing emotional and social distress. Objective The objective was to compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and modified Kligman's formula vs. oral tranexamic acid and 15% azelaic acid. Material and methods This two-year interventional study occurred at the Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy in Sawangi, Maharashtra. It included male and female patients aged 18-50 with melasma seeking treatment. Ethical approval was obtained, and data collection involved medical histories, skin examinations, and calculating the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI). Results The study found no significant association between age groups and subject distribution in Groups A and B. Significant differences were observed in MASI scores within each group over time. There was a significant difference in mean MASI scores between Group A and Group B at the eight-week mark. A burning sensation was significantly associated with the groups, while no significant association was found for erythema. Conclusion This study concludes that combining oral tranexamic acid with a modified Kligman's formula is more effective in treating melasma than combining oral tranexamic acid with azelaic acid 15%.
Clinical Effect of Microneedle Injection Combined with Blood Transfusion in the Treatment of Severe Anemia Complicated with Vitiligo under Regenerative Medical Technology
Biomed Research International. 2022;2022:7117627
To explore the clinical efficacy of microneedle injection combined with blood transfusion in the treatment of severe anemia complicated with vitiligo based on regenerative medical technology and provide the theoretical basis for the adoption of microneedle technology, 60 patients with severe anemia complicated with vitiligo were selected as research objects. With 15 patients in each group, they were randomly assigned to the control group (calcipotriol ointment external application), observation group A (external application of moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), observation group B (external application of MEBO combined with blood transfusion), and observation group C (microneedle injection of MEBO combined with blood transfusion). Blood indexes and plaque recovery of patients in different periods were detected. The total protein (TP) content in group C (62.3 ± 3.3 g/L and 64.3 ± 2.88 g/L) was remarkably higher than that in the control group (51.3 ± 3.17 g/L and 52.4 ± 3.17 g/L) and group A (52.6 ± 2.91 g/L and 51.8 ± 2.98 g/L)) at the 5th and 7th weeks after the treatment (P < 0.05). The albumin (ALB) content in group C (42.9 ± 3.28 g/L and 45.3 ± 3.1 g/L) was signally higher than that in the control group (41.8 ± 3.44 g/L and 41.9 ± 3.23 g/L) and group A (41.3 ± 2.91 g/L and 42.1 ± 3.02 g/L) at the 5th and 7th weeks after the treatment, and the content was markedly higher than that in group B at 5th week (P < 0.05). The wound healing rates of group C at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th weeks after the treatment (38.44%, 56.6%, and 90.23%) were greatly higher than those of the control group, group A, and group B (P < 0.05). Besides, the wound healing rate of group B was higher than that of the control group and group A (40.3% and 75.8%) at the 5th and 7th weeks after the treatment (P < 0.05). To sum up, based on regenerative medical technology, microneedle injection (microneedling is a derma roller process that pricks the skin with minuscule needles. The goal of the treatment is to develop new collagen and skin tissue, resulting in skin that is smoother, firmer, and more toned) combined with blood transfusion had a good therapeutic effect on patients with severe anemia complicated with vitiligo, which could manifestly improve the blood indexes and skin plaques of patients, with a good clinical adoption effect.
Comparison of the efficacy and safety of intralesional injection of tranexamic acid and the topical application of Kligman combination drug in the treatment of macular amyloidosis
Dermatologic Therapy. 2022;35(1):e15213
Macular amyloidosis (MA) is a common form of cutaneous amyloidosis that manifests as dark spots consisting of brown pigments with a rippled pattern on the skin, and the treatment of this condition is highly challenging. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intralesional injection of tranexamic acid (TXA) and topical application of Kligman combination drug in the treatment of macular amyloidosis. In this double-blind clinical trial, a total of 43 patients, who were diagnosed with MA, were treated with two different methods of intralesional injection of tranexamic acid and topical application of Kligman combination drug. Both therapeutic methods were effective in improving MA and significantly reduced hyperpigmentation of the treated areas, but tranexamic acid was significantly more effective than the Kligman combination drug. Significantly, greater improvements were observed in the group of patients treated with tranexamic acid. In the tranexamic acid treatment group, ΔE was reduced from 11.39 in the first session to 8.53 in the third session, and in the Kligman treatment group, it was reduced from 8.79 in the first session to 6.32 in the third session (p < 0.05). In addition, the pruritus score in patients treated with topical tranexamic acid injection was lower compared to the patients treated with the topical application of the Kligman combination drug. The results of this study demonstrated the significant positive effects of both treatment methods, but in terms of reducing melanin content, intralesional injection of tranexamic acid was a more effective method. Both treatments considered safe for MA. In tranexamic acid group, patients logically experienced a tolerable pain during injection but they significantly had significantly lower local pruritic discomfort during study. So, based on the positive findings of this study we suggest to use tranexamic acid in combination with other effective therapeutic methods for treatment of MA especially use of its topically applied form in combination with non-aggressive needling that results in better drug delivery without the experience of injection pain. Selection of the best administration route of tranexamic acid for hyperpigmented lesions depends on the each patient characteristic and their previous theraputic results that may vary case by case.
A Randomized Trial of Oral Tranexamic Acid With Fluocinolone-Based Triple Cream Versus Fluocinolone Based Triple Cream Alone for the Treatment of Melasma
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology : Jdd. 2022;21(3):321-322
Oral tranexamic acid (TXA) is a relatively new treatment option for melasma. It is thought to reduce hyperpigmentation through inhibition of the plasminogen/plasmin pathway with resulting decreases in epidermal melanocyte tyrosinase activity, inflammatory mediators, dermal neovascularization, and mast cell numbers.
Antifibrinolytic agents in plastic surgery: current practices and future directions
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 141(6):937e-949e, 2018 Jun.. 2018;141((6):):937e-949e
BACKGROUND Prevention of blood loss is a chief consideration in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The antifibrinolytic drugs tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid have emerged as promising agents to reduce both perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. However, published reports in the plastic surgery literature are lacking. The authors sought to summarize the current knowledge of the use of antifibrinolytics in plastic surgery by reviewing the existing literature for clinical outcomes and recommendations. METHODS A systematic review of the PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases was conducted for publications examining the use of antifibrinolytics in plastic surgery. Studies were abstracted for procedure type, antifibrinolytic dose, time and mode of administration, blood loss, transfusion requirements, and complications. RESULTS Thirty-three studies were deemed eligible for inclusion, comprising a total of 1823 patients undergoing plastic surgical procedures with tranexamic acid (n = 1328) and/or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (n = 495). CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid are widely used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in craniofacial and orthognathic surgery, without an increased risk of adverse events. Intravenous administration is most commonly used, although topical formulations show similar efficacy with a reduced systemic distribution. Tranexamic acid has also emerged as a promising agent in aesthetic surgery and burn care, due to its favorable safety profile and role in reducing blood loss, achieving an improved surgical field, and reducing edema and ecchymosis. Further investigation of these agents in the fields of burn care, aesthetic surgery, and microsurgery is warranted to standardize protocols for clinical use.
First safety and performance evaluation of T45K, a self-assembling peptide barrier hemostatic device, after skin lesion excision
Dermatologic Surgery : Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [Et Al.]. 2018;44((7):):939-948
BACKGROUND The self-assembling peptide barrier T45K (SAPB-T45K) is an oligopeptide that rapidly forms a biocompatible hemostatic barrier when applied to wounds. OBJECTIVE Evaluate safety and performance of SAPB-T45K in cutaneous surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this single-blind study, after sequential shave excision of 2 lesions, wounds were randomized (intrapatient) to SAPB-T45K or control treatment. Safety was assessed at treatment, Day 7, and Day 30. Performance was evaluated using time to hemostasis (TTH) and ASEPSIS wound scores, with a subgroup analysis for patients with or without antiplatelet therapy. RESULTS Each of 46 patients (10 [22%] with antiplatelet therapy) received randomized SAPB-T45K or control treatment for 2 wounds. Safety assessments were similar, and ASEPSIS scores reflected normal healing in both wound groups. SAPB-T45K demonstrated significantly faster median TTH (24.5 [range, 7-165] seconds) compared with control (44 [10-387] seconds), for a 41% median TTH reduction (18 [95% confidence interval, 7-35] seconds, p < .001). SAPB-T45K provided an identical median TTH of 24 seconds, regardless of antiplatelet therapy. Control median TTH was 90 and 40 seconds for patients taking or not taking antiplatelet therapy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS SAPB-T45K provided significantly faster median TTH versus control, especially with antiplatelet therapy, and safety profiles were similar.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of oral tranexamic acid in the treatment of moderate-to-severe melasma
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2018;78(2):363-369
BACKGROUND Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder that is often difficult to treat. Tranexamic acid (TA) has emerged as a promising treatment for melasma; however, few controlled studies exist. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of oral TA in patients with moderate-to-severe melasma. METHODS Patients with moderate-to-severe melasma were treated with 250 mg of TA or placebo capsules twice daily for 3 months and sunscreen followed by 3 months of treatment with sunscreen only. The primary outcome measure was the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score. RESULTS A total of 44 patients were enrolled and 39 completed the study. At 3 months, there was a 49% reduction in mMASI score in the TA group versus 18% in the control group. Patients with severe melasma improved more than those with moderate melasma. Three months after treatment was stopped, there was a 26% reduction in mMASI score in the TA group compared with the baseline visit versus a 19% reduction in the placebo arm. No serious adverse events were noted in either group. LIMITATIONS Single-center study enrolling predominantly Hispanic women. CONCLUSIONS Oral TA appears to be an effective treatment for moderate-to-severe melasma with minimal side effects.
Photographic evaluation of different adrenaline-containing tumescent solutions on skin graft donor site bleeding: A prospective randomised trial
Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2018;44((8):):2018-2025.
BACKGROUND Tumescent infiltration is a technique to reduce skin graft donor site bleeding, however there are no studies comparing tumescent solutions with different concentrations of adrenaline on donor site blood loss. We sought to evaluate the effect on skin donor site bleeding of different adrenaline concentrations in adrenaline-containing tumescent solutions in a prospective randomised trial. METHODS Donor sites were marked into thirds and each segment randomised to receive tumescent infiltration containing no adrenaline, adrenaline 1:500,000, or adrenaline 1:250,000. Donor sites were photographed 10s after skin graft harvest. A laparotomy sponge was then placed onto the wound for a further 20s and photographed. These photographs were divided into their corresponding thirds and each scored on a scale of 0 (no bleeding) to 5 (severe bleeding) by a blinded independent panel of plastic surgeons. RESULTS 11 patients (15 donor sites) were recruited. Donor site segments infiltrated with adrenaline 1:250,000 had significantly lower wound bleeding and sponge staining mean rank scores compared with segments infiltrated with adrenaline 1:500,000 (9.47 vs 21.57; p=0.035 and 9.63 vs 21.37; p<0.043 respectively). Segments infiltrated with adrenaline 1:500,000 had significantly lower wound bleeding and sponge staining mean rank scores compared with segments that were not infiltrated with adrenaline (21.5 7 vs 37.97; p=0.002 and 21.37 vs 38; p<0.002 respectively). There were no local or systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that donor site infiltration with different adrenaline-containing tumescence solutions cause significantly different photographic bleeding scores. Adrenaline 1:250,000 tumescence resulted in significantly lower bleeding scores than lower concentrations of adrenaline without compromising safety or wound healing. These findings suggest that adrenaline tumescence reduces donor site blood loss in a dose-dependent manner.
Use of non-biologic treatments in antihistamine-refractory chronic urticaria: a review of published evidence
The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2017;:1-38
BACKGROUND Knowledge of effectiveness and safety of the non-biologic, non-antihistamine treatments used for chronic urticaria is important as in some cases the principal guideline-recommended drug; omalizumab, has limited effect, side effects, or is too expensive or unavailable. Herein we systematically review the evidence for the use of the non-biologic treatments in antihistamine-refractory chronic urticaria. METHODS We performed a systematic review of the literature using PubMed and Webofscience and identified studies that reported use of one or more of the non-biological, non-antihistamine treatment options for chronic urticaria. The studies were evaluated based on study design, number of patients, effect of treatment and safety. RESULTS We identified 118 studies or case-series with 13 different treatments (azathioprine, chloroquine, colchicine, cyclosporine, dapsone, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), methotrexate, montelukast, mycophenolate mofetil, plasmapheresis, sulfasalazine, tranexamic acid and ultraviolet light (UV) A, UVB) totaling 1682 patients. There was a paucity of controlled trials for most of the treatments reviewed albeit the strongest evidence in favour of a beneficial effect in chronic urticaria was, apart from montelukast and cyclosporine, seen for UV-therapy and dapsone followed by IVIG. CONCLUSION The treatment options reviewed should be seen as potential alternatives in treatment-resistant chronic urticaria where guideline-based selections have failed. However, larger controlled trials are warranted to advance the level of evidence, possibly supporting some treatments' future recommendation in selected patients.
Oral tranexamic acid enhances the efficacy of low-fluence 1064-nm quality-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser treatment for melasma in Koreans: a randomized, prospective trial
Dermatologic Surgery. 2013;39((3, Pt 1):):435-42.
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TA) has recently gained in popularity in the treatment of pigmentary disorders. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TA combined with low-fluence 1064-nm quality-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QSNY) laser for the treatment of melasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-eight patients with melasma were enrolled in the study and subsequently divided into two groups: a combination group and a laser treatment group. All patients were treated with two sessions of low-fluence QSNY laser, and patients in the combination group took 8 weeks of oral TA. Two blinded dermatologists evaluated patients using the Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) and a clinical improvement scale. RESULTS Mean mMASI score 4weeks after the second treatment decreased significantly in both groups from base line. Based on overall clinical improvement, a greater number of patients scored as grade 3 and more in the combination group; no patients were scored as grade 4 in the laser-alone group. CONCLUSIONS Oral TA may prove a safe and efficient treatment option for melasma in combination with low-fluence QSNY laser therapy. 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.