Human Albumin Infusion for the Management of Liver Cirrhosis and Its Complications: An Overview of Major Findings from Meta-analyses
Zheng X, Bai Z, Wang T, Romeiro FG, Mancuso A, Philips CA, Wong YJ, Nery FG, Qi X
Advances in therapy. 2023
INTRODUCTION The role of human albumin (HA) infusion in cirrhotic patients has been increasingly recognized. This paper aims to summarize the evidence from meta-analyses regarding HA infusion for the management of cirrhosis and its complications. METHODS A systematic search in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, and in reference lists was conducted. All relevant meta-analyses were identified and their findings were reviewed. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2) checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence for significant outcomes. RESULTS Among 300 papers initially identified, 18 meta-analyses have been included. Short- and long-term HA infusion at high doses decreased the mortality of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients with ascites, long-term HA infusion reduced the recurrence of ascites, but not mortality. In cirrhotic patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis (LVP), HA infusion reduced the incidence of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction and hyponatremia, but not mortality or renal impairment. In cirrhotic patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE), HA infusion improved the severity of overt HE, but not overall mortality. In cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), but not those with non-SBP infections, HA infusion reduced the mortality and renal impairment. In cirrhotic patients with type-1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), an increment of 100 g in cumulative HA dose increased 1.15-fold survival, but not HRS reversal. In these meta-analyses, the quality of methodology was low or critically low, and that of the evidence was from very low to moderate. CONCLUSIONS Based on the limited evidence from these meta-analyses, HA infusion appears to be beneficial in cirrhotic patients with ascites, overt HE, and SBP and in those undergoing LVP, but not in those with non-SBP infections.
Prophylactic fresh frozen plasma versus prothrombin complex concentrate for preprocedural management of the coagulopathy of liver disease: A systematic review
Evans CR, Cuker A, Crowther M, Pishko AM
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;6(4):e12724
BACKGROUND The optimal prophylactic preprocedural management of patients with coagulopathy due to liver disease is not known. OBJECTIVES Our objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in the preprocedural management of patients with coagulopathy of liver disease. METHODS We conducted a systematic review to examine published evidence regarding treatment with FFP or PCC in adults with coagulopathy of liver disease undergoing an invasive procedure. Direct comparisons and single-arm studies were eligible. Efficacy outcomes included major bleeding, mortality, and correction of prothrombin time (PT) and/or international normalized ratio (INR). Safety outcomes included thrombosis and transfusion-related complications. RESULTS A total of 95 articles were identified for full-text review. Nine studies were eligible and included in the review. No randomized trials comparing FFP versus PCC were identified. Only two studies directly compared FFP versus PCC. In these studies, PCC appeared to result in higher rates of correction of PT/INR, but bleeding outcomes were not different. In the single-arm studies, bleeding events appeared low overall. Volume overload was the most common recorded adverse event in patients receiving FFP. Thromboembolic events occurred rarely, but exclusively in the PCC group. Due to heterogeneity in study definitions and bias, meta-analysis was not possible. Our study found no evidence to favor a specific product over another. CONCLUSIONS Insufficient data exist on the effects of FFP versus PCC administration before invasive procedures in patients with coagulopathy of liver disease to make conclusions with respect to relative efficacy or safety.
Thromboelastography-Guided Therapy Enhances Patient Blood Management in Cirrhotic Patients: A Meta-analysis Based on Randomized Controlled Trials
Hartmann J, Dias JD, Pivalizza EG, Garcia-Tsao G
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2022
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Patients with cirrhosis often have abnormal hemostasis, with increased risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis. Thromboelastography provides a rapid assessment of the coagulation status and can guide product transfusions in adult patients with cirrhosis. This study aimed to determine whether the use of thromboelastography in adult patients with cirrhosis decreases blood product use and impacts adverse events or mortality compared with standard practice. A registered (PROSPERO CRD42020192458) systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing thromboelastography-guided hemostatic management versus standard practice (control). Co-primary outcomes were the number of transfused platelet units and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units. Secondary outcomes were mortality, adverse events, utilization of individual blood products, blood loss or excessive bleeding events, hospital/intensive care unit stay, and liver transplant/intervention outcomes. The search identified 260 articles, with five RCTs included in the meta-analysis. Platelet use was five times lower with thromboelastography versus the control, with a relative risk of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.03-0.90]; p = 0.04), but FFP use did not differ significantly. Thromboelastography was associated with less blood product (p < 0.001), FFP + platelets (p < 0.001), and cryoprecipitate (p < 0.001) use. No differences were reported in bleeding rates or longer term mortality between groups, with the thromboelastography group having lower mortality at 7 days versus the control (relative risk [95% CI] = 0.52 [0.30-0.91]; p = 0.02). Thromboelastography-guided therapy in patients with cirrhosis enhances patient blood management by reducing use of blood products without increasing complications.
Patients with cirrhosis (5 studies, n= 302).
Thromboelastography-guided haemostatic management.
Standard coagulation testing (standard practice).
Platelet use was five times lower with thromboelastography vs. standard practice, with a relative risk of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.03-0.90]), but fresh frozen plasma (FFP) use did not differ significantly. Thromboelastography was associated with less blood product, FFP + platelets, and cryoprecipitate use. No differences were reported in bleeding rates or longer-term mortality between groups, with the thromboelastography group having lower mortality at 7 days vs. standard practice (relative risk [95% CI] = 0.52 [0.30-0.91]).
Meta-analysis: Efficacy and safety of albumin in the prevention and treatment of complications in patients with cirrhosis
Leache L, Gutiérrez-Valencia M, Saiz LC, Uriz J, Bolado F, García-Erce JA, Cantarelli L, Erviti J
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2022
INTRODUCTION Albumin is used in multiple situations in patients with cirrhosis, but the evidence of its benefit is not always clear. The aim was to synthesise the evidence on the efficacy and safety of albumin compared to other treatments or no active intervention in cirrhotic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL up to May 2022. We assessed all-cause mortality, liver transplant, cirrhosis complications of any type and serious adverse events (SAEs). Second, AEs, hospital readmission, length of hospital stay, need for paracentesis and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated. Meta-analyses with Mantel-Haenszel method and random-effects model were performed. RESULTS Fifty studies (5118 participants) were included. Albumin was associated with a reduction in mortality in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.32-0.75; low certainty) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83; low certainty) when compared to no administration of albumin, but not in other scenarios. In general, no additional benefit of albumin was found in liver transplants, SAEs or cirrhosis complications (low/very low certainty). Long-term administration (>3 months) of albumin led to a reduction in cirrhosis complications (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.97; low certainty), hospital readmissions, length of hospital stay, need for paracentesis and improvement of QoL. CONCLUSION Albumin may reduce mortality risk in cirrhotic patients with SBP or HE. No benefit was identified in reducing liver transplants or SAEs. Long-term administration may be associated with a lower risk of cirrhosis complications and need for paracentesis.
Systematic review and meta-analysis: incidence of variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis undergoing transesophageal echocardiography
Odewole M, Sen A, Okoruwa E, Lieber SR, Cotter TG, Nguyen AD, Mufti A, Singal AG, Rich NE
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2022
BACKGROUND The presence of esophageal varices is considered a relative contraindication to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) by cardiology professional societies, so gastroenterologists are often consulted to perform upper endoscopy prior to TEE in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: To perform a systematic review to quantify the risk of bleeding complications in patients with cirrhosis following TEE. METHODS Two reviewers searched Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and EMBASE databases from January 1992 to May 2021 for studies reporting bleeding complications from TEE in patients with cirrhosis. We calculated the pooled incidence rate of bleeding events using the metaprop command with a random effect model. RESULTS We identified 21 studies comprising 4050 unique patients with cirrhosis; 9 studies (n = 3015) assessed the risk of intraoperative TEE during liver transplant (LT) and 12 studies (n = 1035) assessed bleeding risk in patients undergoing TEE for other indications. The pooled incidence of bleeding post-TEE was 0.37% (95% CI 0.04-0.94%) across all studies. Bleeding complications were low among patients undergoing TEE during LT as well as those undergoing TEE for other diagnostic reasons (0.97% vs. 0.004%) and among studies with mean MELD >18 compared to those with mean MELD <18 (0.43% vs. 0.08%). Few studies had a comparator arm, and data on patient-level factors impacting bleeding complications (including degree of liver dysfunction and coagulopathy) were limited across studies. CONCLUSIONS The risk of bleeding complications following TEE is low in patients with cirrhosis, suggesting TEE is safe and risk stratification with upper endoscopy may not be necessary.
Efficacy of Intravenous Albumin for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Infection Among Patients With Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials
Batool S, Waheed MD, Vuthaluru K, Jaffar T, Garlapati SKP, Bseiso O, Nousherwani MD, Saleem F
Albumin is an important component in the standard therapeutic approach to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). This meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of intravenous human albumin in patients with cirrhosis and SBP. This study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Two reviewers independently searched relevant studies using electronic databases including PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library from the date of database inception to October 2022. The outcomes assessed in the current meta-analysis include 30-day mortality, renal impairment, changes in serum creatinine levels (mg/dl) and resolution of bacterial infection. It was found that the risk of all-cause mortality and renal impairment was significantly lower in patients receiving albumin compared to the control group. However, no significant difference was reported between the two groups in relation to changes in mean creatinine levels and resolution of infection.
Efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled clinical trials
Chen T, Huang J, Dong H, Xu L, Chen C, Tang Y, Huang W
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:1029432
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in the treatment of anemia in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of anemia in NDD-CKD patients to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a hemoglobin (Hb) response. Secondary efficacy endpoints were hepcidin, serum iron, serum ferritin (SF), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TAST), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In addition, adverse events (AEs) were compared. Meta-analyses were performed using Revman 5.4 software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. This study was conducted under a pre-established protocol registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42021252331). RESULTS Seven studies enrolled 4,764 patients, of whom 2,730 received roxadustat and 2,034 received placebo. The results of this meta-analysis showed that roxadustat increased Hb levels [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.68, P < 0.001, I (2) = 95%], and Hb response [relative ratio (RR) = 8.12, 95% CI: 5.80 to 11.37, P < 0.001, I (2) = 61%]. In addition, roxadustat significantly increased transferrin TAST. During the treatment period in patients with anemia, the AEs of roxadustat compared with placebo was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Roxadustat can improve anemia in NDD-CKD patients by increasing Hb levels and regulating iron metabolism, but does not increase the incidence of AEs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021252331].
Can albumin reduce the mortality of patients with cirrhosis and ascites? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Xu T, Liu W, Huang R
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2022
BACKGROUND Albumin therapy in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis has always been a controversial issue. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of albumin in reducing mortality and controlling complications in patients with liver cirrhosis and provide a reference for relevant decision-making. METHODS Databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to collect eligible articles published before January 2022, which were analyzed by Revman 5.3. RESULTS A total of 10 randomized controlled trials (2040 patients) were included. Based on the meta-analysis results, no significant difference in mortality was shown between the albumin administration group and the control group (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97-1.05; P = 0.62). Subgroup analysis showed that albumin administration had no significant short-term or long-term survival benefits in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and increased the risk of pulmonary edema adverse reactions (RR = 3.14; 95% CI, 1.48-6.65; P = 0.003). Subgroup analysis based on albumin administration time showed that short-term (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76-1.13; P = 0.47) or long-term (HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.87-1.08; P = 0.58) administration of albumin could not significantly reduce the mortality of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. In contrast, albumin administration could significantly reduce the recurrence rate of ascites (RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46-0.68; P = 0.000). CONCLUSION Short-term(<1 month) or long-term (>1 month) administration of albumin can not significantly reduce the mortality of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, and a large amount of albumin infusion will increase the risk of pulmonary edema.
Use of Human Albumin Administration for the Prevention and Treatment of Hyponatremia in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Bai Z, Wang L, Lin H, Tacke F, Cheng G, Qi X
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(19)
BACKGROUND Hyponatremia is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and aggravates patients' outcomes. It may be corrected by human albumin (HA) infusion. Herein, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous HA administration for the prevention and treatment of hyponatremia in liver cirrhosis. METHODS Literature was searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. If possible, a meta-analysis would be conducted. Incidence of hyponatremia, rate of resolution of hyponatremia, and serum sodium level were compared between cirrhotic patients who received and did not receive HA infusion. Odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The quality of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. RESULTS Initially, 3231 papers were identified. Among them, 30 studies, including 25 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 5 cohort studies, were eligible. Among cirrhotic patients without hyponatremia, the HA infusion group had significantly lower incidence of hyponatremia (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.38-0.80, p = 0.001) and higher serum sodium level (MD = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.47-1.43, p = 0.0001) as compared to the control group. Among cirrhotic patients with hyponatremia, the HA infusion group had a significantly higher rate of resolution of hyponatremia (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.17-1.92, p = 0.001) as compared to the control group. Generally, the quality of available evidence is low. CONCLUSIONS Based on the current evidence, HA may be considered for preventing the development of hyponatremia in liver cirrhosis, especially in those undergoing LVP, and treating hyponatremia. Well-designed studies are required to clarify the effects of HA infusion on hyponatremia in liver cirrhosis.
Use of human albumin infusion in cirrhotic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Bai Z, Wang L, Wang R, Zou M, Méndez-Sánchez N, Romeiro FG, Cheng G, Qi X
Hepatology international. 2022
BACKGROUND Human albumin infusion is effective for controlling systemic inflammation, thereby probably managing some liver cirrhosis-related complications, such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and hepatorenal syndrome. However, its clinical benefits remain controversial. METHODS EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding use of human albumin infusion in cirrhotic patients were eligible. Mortality and incidence of liver cirrhosis-related complications were pooled. Effect of human albumin infusion on mortality was also evaluated by subgroup analyses primarily according to target population and duration of human albumin infusion treatment. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS Forty-two RCTs were finally included. Meta-analysis showed that human albumin infusion could significantly decrease the mortality of cirrhotic patients (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that human albumin infusion could significantly decrease the mortality of cirrhotic patients with SBP (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.20-0.64, p = 0.0005) and HE (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22-0.85, p = 0.02), but not those with ascites or non-SBP infections or undergoing large-volume paracentesis. Short-term human albumin infusion treatment could significantly decrease short-term mortality (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89, p = 0.005), but not long-term mortality. Long-term human albumin infusion treatment could not significantly decrease long-term mortality (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.48-1.08, p = 0.11). In addition, human albumin infusion could significantly decrease the incidence of renal impairment (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.45-0.88, p = 0.007) and ascites (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.25-0.81, p = 0.007), but not infections or gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Human albumin infusion may improve the outcomes of cirrhotic patients. However, its indications for different complications and infusion strategy in liver cirrhosis should be further explored.