Furosemide and albumin for the treatment of nephrotic edema: a systematic review
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND Edema is one of the cardinal clinical features of nephrotic syndrome (NS). It may vary from mild periorbital edema to severe generalized edema (anasarca). In patients where edema does not improve with prednisone therapy, the most common supportive medications are diuretics and albumin. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of edema formation in NS patients resulting in intravascular normovolemia or hypovolemia, optimal therapy for edema is still debated. We conducted a systematic review with the objective of evaluating the change in urine volume and urine sodium excretion after treatment with furosemide only versus furosemide with albumin in edematous patients with NS. OBJECTIVES (1) To evaluate efficacy of furosemide alone versus furosemide with albumin in the treatment of nephrotic edema in adults and children. (2) To compare the harms and benefits of different doses of furosemide for treating nephrotic edema. SEARCH METHODS The search included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in English and French using MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL Trials Registry of the Cochrane Collaboration using the Ovid interface. ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were also searched. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all RCTs and randomized cross-over studies in which furosemide and furosemide plus albumin are used in the treatment of children or adults with nephrotic edema. We excluded patients with hypoalbuminemia of non-renal origin and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a glomerular filtration rate below 30 ml/min/1.74 m(2) and patients with congenital NS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS All abstracts were independently assessed by at least two authors to determine which studies met the inclusion criteria. Information on study design, methodology, and outcome data (urine volume, urine sodium excretion, adverse effects) from each identified study was entered into a separate data sheet. The differences in outcomes between the types of therapy were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The search yielded 525 records, and after screening, five studies were included in the systematic review and four of those studies in the meta-analysis. One study had high risk of bias and the remaining three studies were deemed to have some concerns. Urine excretion was greater after treatment with furosemide and albumin versus furosemide (SMD 0.85, 95% CI = 0.33 to 1.38). Results for sodium excretion were inconclusive (SMD 0.37, 95%CI = - 0.28 to 1.02). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The current evidence is not sufficient to make definitive conclusions about the role of albumin in treating nephrotic edema. High-quality randomized studies with adequate samples sizes are needed. Including an assessment of intravascular volume status may be helpful. TRIAL REGISTRATION Prospero: CRD4201808979. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat Vs rhEPO for Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:746265
Introduction: Daprodustat, a novel hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI), its efficacy and safety remain unclear. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis aiming at investigating its efficacy and safety on the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Methods: We systematically searched for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trial Registries databases from inception until December 2021. We selected randomized controlled trials comparing daprodustat with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in anemia patients with CKD with or without dialysis. Results: Seven studies including 7933 patients met the inclusion criteria. For both nondialysis-dependent (NDD-) CKD and dialysis-dependent (DD-) CKD patients, the pooled results showed that there was no significant difference in the changes in hemoglobin levels between the daprodustat and rhEPO groups (mean difference (MD) = -0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.38, 0.35, p = 0.95; MD = 0.15, 95% CI = -0.29, 0.60, p = 0.50; respectively). In addition, a significant increase in transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and total iron was observed in daprodustat groups compared with rhEPO groups in DD-CKD patients (p < 0.05). As for safety, the overall frequency of adverse events was similar between the daprodustat and rhEPO groups in DD-CKD patients (relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.92, 1.06, p = 0.76), and the trial sequential analysis (TSA) confirmed this result. But for NDD-CKD patients, the incidence of adverse events in the daprodustat groups was significantly higher than that of rhEPO groups (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01,1.07, p = 0.02), while the TSA corrected this result. No trend of increasing incidence of serious adverse events was found in all daprodustat treated patients, but the TSA could not confirm this result. Conclusion: Although daprodustat was noninferior to rhEPO in correcting anemia in both NDD-CKD and DD-CKD patients, it seemed to have a better effect on optimizing iron metabolism in DD-CKD patients. Daprodustat may be a promising alternative for the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD. However, due to the lack of included studies, future researches are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic effect of daprodustat. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42021229636.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
PloS one. 2022;17(4):e0266243
BACKGROUND Roxadustat (ROX) is a new medication for anemia as a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ROX, especially on the cardiovascular risks, for anemia in NDD-CKD patients. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically from inception to July 2021 to look for randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated ROX NDD-CKD patients. Hemoglobin level and iron utilization parameters, including ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin, and hepcidin were analyzed for efficacy. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and presented with their 95% confidential intervals (CIs). RESULTS Nine RCTs included a total of 3,175 patients in the ROX group and 2,446 patients in the control group. When compared the control group, ROX increased Hb level significantly (SMD: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.22; P< 0.00001) and improved iron utilization parameters by decreasing ferritin (SMD: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.14; P = 0.0006), TSAT (SMD: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.07; P = 0.003), and hepcidin (SMD: -0.74; 95% CI: -1.09, -0.39; P< 0.0001) and increasing TIBC (SMD: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.22; P< 0.00001) and transferrin (SMD: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.71; P< 0.00001). As for safety, ROX was associated with higher serious adverse effects (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13; P = 0.01), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RR: 3.80; 95% CI: 1.5, 9.64; P = 0.08), and hypertension (HTN) (RR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.65; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION We concluded that ROX increased Hb level and improved iron utilization parameters in NDD-CKD patients, but ROX was associated with higher serious adverse effects, especially DVT and HTN. Our results support the use of ROX for NDD-CKD patients with anemia. However, higher-quality RCTs are still needed to ensure its safety and risk of thrombosis.
The Effect of Iron Supplementation on FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review and Time-Response Meta-Analysis
Biological trace element research. 2021;199(12):4516-4524
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene is found to be responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and is highly expressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated the efficacy of different iron treatments on FGF23 levels in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients with IDA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of iron treatment versus placebo in CKD patients up to May 2020. We investigated the efficacy of iron treatment on the levels of FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) in CKD patients. We estimated weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Nine studies with 11 arms were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, iron treatment showed a significant reduction in FGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 60.56 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 92.17, - 28.95). Compared to placebo, subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy (WMD: - 6.98 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 10.66, - 3.31) was more effective than intravenous (IV) iron therapy (WMD: 4.90 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 12.03, 21.83) on FGF23 levels. There was no significant change in cFGF23 levels between iron treatment and control group (WMD: - 64.72 Ru/ml, 95% CI: - 147.69, 18.25). Subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy resulted in a significant reduction in cFGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 150.48 RU/ml, 95% CI: - 151.31, - 149.65). In conclusion, iron treatment was associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 levels in CKD patients.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
Management of Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Children
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) affects 115-169 children per 100,000, with rates varying by ethnicity and location. Immune dysregulation, systemic circulating substances, or hereditary structural abnormalities of the podocyte are considered to have a role in the etiology of idiopathic NS. Following daily therapy with corticosteroids, more than 85% of children and adolescents (often aged 1 to 12 years) with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome have full proteinuria remission. Patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) do not demonstrate remission after four weeks of daily prednisolone therapy. The incidence of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children varies between 35 and 92 percent. A third of SRNS patients have mutations in one of the important podocyte genes. An unidentified circulating factor is most likely to blame for the remaining instances of SRNS. The aim of this article is to explore and review the genetic factors and management of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. An all language literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar till September 2021. The following search strings and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms were used: "Steroid resistance", "nephrotic syndrome", "nephrosis" and "hypoalbuminemia". We comprehensively reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, genetics, current treatment protocols, and management of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We found that for individuals with non-genetic SRNS, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine and tacrolimus) constitute the current mainstay of treatment, with around 70% of patients achieving full or partial remission and an acceptable long-term prognosis. Patients with SRNS who do not react to calcineurin inhibitors or other immunosuppressive medications may have deterioration in kidney function and may develop end-stage renal failure. Nonspecific renal protective medicines, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin 2 receptor blockers, and anti-lipid medications, slow the course of the illness. Recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the allograft affects around a third of individuals who get a kidney transplant, and it frequently responds to a combination of plasma exchange, rituximab, and increased immunosuppression. Despite the fact that these results show a considerable improvement in outcome, further multicenter controlled studies are required to determine the optimum drugs and regimens to be used.
The efficacy of Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Annals of translational medicine. 2021;9(23):1714
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently published RCTs were conducted to compare the effect of the new medication roxadustat (ROX) with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in dialysis-dependent CKD (DD-CKD) patients. Our article aimed to meta-analyze published RCTs to investigate the efficacy and safety of ROX for anemia in DD-CKD patients and update the effect of the new studies on overall analysis with subsequent impact on management. METHODS Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar) were searched systematically from inception to July 2021 by using this search term (Roxadustat OR ASP1517 OR FG4592 OR "FG-4592") AND (kidney OR renal) AND (Anemia). We only included randomized control trials (RCTs) that reported the primary outcome of change in hemoglobin (Hb) level and iron utilization parameters, including ferritin, serum iron, TSAT, TIBC, transferrin, and hepcidin. RESULTS Ten RCTs were finally included with 3031 patients in the ROX group and 2737 patients in the control group. ROX was associated with increase in Hb level (SMD: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.39; P=0.03), TIBC (SMD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.98; P<0.00001), serum iron (SMD: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.36; P<0.00001), transferrin (SMD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.15; P<0.00001) and decrease in hepcidin (SMD: -15.53; 95% CI: -28.07, -3.00; P<0.02) when compared with control group. There was no difference between ROX and the control group regarding ferritin level and TSAT. Sensitivity analysis by removing the most recent studies, Chen et al. or Hou et al. did not show significant difference in regard to change in Hb level. There was no difference between both groups regarding the serious side effects. However, ROX showed higher TEAEs when compared to the control group (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05; P=0.002). DISCUSSION Our updated meta-analysis concluded that ROX increased Hb level and improved iron utilization parameters in DD-CKD patients, but ROX was associated with higher TEAEs. Our results support the use of ROX for DD-CKD patients with anemia. However, higher-quality RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of our review.
The Impact of Iron Supplementation for Treating Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from Pairwise and Network Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020;13(5)
After relative erythropoietin deficiency, iron deficiency is the second most important contributing factor for anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Iron supplementation is a crucial part of the treatment of anemia in CKD patients, and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is considered to be superior to per os (PO) iron supplementation. The differences between the available formulations are poorly characterized. This report presents results from pairwise and network meta-analyses carried out after a comprehensive search in sources of published and unpublished studies, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations (International prospective register of systematic reviews PROSPERO reference ID: CRD42020148155). Meta-analytic calculations were performed for the outcome of non-response to iron supplementation (i.e., hemoglobin (Hgb) increase of <0.5-1.0 g/dL, or initiation/intensification of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy, or increase/change of iron supplement, or requirements of blood transfusion). A total of 34 randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified, providing numerical data for analyses covering 93.7% (n = 10.097) of the total study population. At the network level, iron supplementation seems to have a more protective effect against the outcome of non-response before the start of dialysis than once dialysis is initiated, and some preparations seem to be more potent (e.g., ferumoxytol, ferric carboxymaltose), compared to the rest of iron supplements assessed (surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) > 0.8). This study provides parameters for adequately following-up patients requiring iron supplementation, by presenting the most performing preparations, and, indirectly, by making it possible to identify good responders among all patients treated with these medicines.
Effects of Jianpi Bushen Therapy for Treatment of CKD Anemia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2020;11:560920
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, specifically Jianpi Bushen (JPBS) therapy, for treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia. METHODS Randomized controlled trials of JPBS therapy for CKD anemia were searched and selected from seven electronic databases. The Cochrane collaboration tool was used to conduct methodological quality assessment. RevMan v5.3 software was utilized to perform data analysis. RESULTS In total, 12 randomized controlled trials with 799 patients met the meta-analysis criteria. The aggregated results indicated that JPBS therapy is beneficial for CKD anemia by improving the clinical efficacy rate [risk ratio (RR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.14, 1.33), P < 0.00001] and hemoglobin (Hb) [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 9.55, 95% CI: (7.97, 11.14), P < 0.00001], serum ferritin (SF) [WMD = 6.22, 95% CI: (2.65, 9.79), P = 0.0006], red blood cell (RBC) [WMD = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.24, 0.38), P < 0.00001], hematocrit (HCT) [WMD = 2.95, 95% CI: (2.36, 3.54), P < 0.00001], serum creatinine (SCr) [WMD = 64.57, 95% CI: (33.51, 95.64), P < 0.0001], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels [WMD = 3.76, 95% CI: (2.21, 5.31), P <0.00001]. Furthermore, evidence suggests that JPBS therapy is safe and does not increase adverse reactions compared with western medicine (WM) alone. CONCLUSION This study found that JPBS therapy has a positive effect on the treatment of CKD anemia. However, more well-designed, double-blind, large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of JPBS therapy in the treatment of CKD anemic patients.