The impact of tranexamic acid on perioperative outcomes in urological surgeries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kim J, Alrumaih A, Donnelly C, Uy M, Hoogenes J, Matsumoto ED
Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada. 2023
INTRODUCTION Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent widely used in surgery to decrease bleeding and reduce the need for blood product transfusion. The role of TXA in urology is not well summarized. We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting outcomes of TXA use in urological surgery. METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Two reviewers performed title and abstract screening, full text review, and data collection. Primary outcomes included estimated blood loss (EBL), decrease in hemoglobin, decrease in hematocrit, and blood transfusion rates. Secondary outcomes included TXA administration characteristics, length of stay, operative time, and postoperative thromboembolic events. RESULTS A total of 26 studies consisting of 3201 patients were included in the final analysis. These included 11 studies on percutaneous nephrolithotomy, 10 on transurethral resection of the prostate, three on prostatectomy, and one on cystectomy. Estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion rate, hemoglobin drop, operative time, and length of stay were significantly improved with TXA administration. In addition, the use of TXA was not associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The route, dosage, and timing of TXA administration varied considerably between included studies. CONCLUSIONS TXA use may improve blood loss, transfusion rates, and perioperative parameters in urological procedures. In addition, there is no increased risk of VTE associated with TXA use in urological surgery; however, there is still a need to determine the most effective TXA administration route and dose. This review provides evidence-based data for decision-making in urological surgery.
Local Versus Systemic Tranexamic Acid in Total Hip Arthroplasty in Young Adults
Kushwaha NS, Singh S, Kumar S, Singh A, Abbas MB, Deshwal S, Agarwal R
Background Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most successful orthopedic elective surgical procedure for end-stage hip arthritis. THA is linked with significant blood loss, ranging from 1,188 to 1,651 mL, and a transfusion rate of 16-37%, which frequently results in postoperative blood transfusions. Postoperative blood transfusions can be avoided by using autologous blood transfusion, intraoperative blood saving, local anesthetic, hypotensive anesthesia, and antifibrinolytic medications such as tranexamic acid (TXA) administration. Methodology A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, controlled study was conducted with three prospective groups to investigate the efficacy of topical and systemic routes of a single intraoperative dose (1.5 g) of TXA. Patients were recruited from our center between October 2021 to March 2022 who were undergoing primary total hip replacement. Estimated blood loss was calculated and compared in groups, and a p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Results A total of 60 patients were recruited in our study. Estimated blood loss was similar in both treatment groups, 816.8 ± 219.9 mL in the systemic TXA group and 775.5 ± 107.2 mL in the topical TXA group. The placebo group had 1,066.3 ± 150.4 mL estimated blood loss, which was significantly higher compared to the treatment groups. Conclusions Administration of TXA (1.5 g) significantly lowers blood loss without increasing problems, which can eliminate concerns about intravenous TXA use. TXA reduces blood loss by 270 mL on average.
Efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid administration in medial opening-wedge distal tibial tuberosity osteotomy (MOWDTO) for varus knee osteoarthritis: a randomized control trial
Iseki, T., Iseki, T., Kanto, R., Onishi, S., Yoshiya, S., Tachibana, T., Nakayama, H.
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2023;18(1):178
BACKGROUND This randomized controlled study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in reducing perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing medial opening-wedge distal tibial tuberosity osteotomy (MOWDTO). It was hypothesized that TXA would reduce perioperative blood loss in MOWDTO. METHODS A total of 61 knees in 59 patients who underwent MOWDTO during the study period were randomly assigned to either of the groups with intravenous TXA administration (TXA group) or without TXA administration (control group). In the TXA group, patients received 1000 mg of TXA intravenously before skin incision and 6 h after the first dose. The primary outcomes was the volume of perioperative total blood loss which calculated using the blood volume and hemoglobin (Hb) drop. The Hb drop was calculated as the difference between preoperative Hb and postoperative Hb at days 1, 3, and 7. RESULTS The perioperative total blood loss was significantly lower in the TXA group (543 ± 219 ml vs. 880 ± 268 ml, P < 0.001). The Hb drop was significantly lower at postoperative days 1, 3 and 7 in the TXA group than in the control group (day 1: 1.28 ± 0.68 g/dl vs. 1.91 ± 0.69 g/dl, P = 0.001; day 3: 1.54 ± 0.66 g/dl vs. 2.69 ± 1.00 g/dl, P < 0.001; day 7: 1.74 ± 0.66 g/dl vs. 2.83 ± 0.91 g/dl, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Intravenous TXA administration in MOWDTO could reduce the perioperative blood loss. Trial registration The study was approved by the institutional review board. (Registered on 26/02/2019 Registration Number 3136). Level of Evidence Level I, randomized controlled trial.
Effect of postoperative tranexamic acid on recurrence rate and complications in chronic subdural hematomas patients: preliminary results of a randomized controlled clinical trial
de Paula Mvct, Ribeiro BDC, Melo MM, de Freitas PVV, Pahl FH, de Oliveira MF, Rotta JM
Neurosurgical review. 2023;46(1):90
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a frequent neurosurgical disease which mainly affects elderly patients. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been hypothesized as an oral agent to avoid CSDH progression and/or recurrence. We performed an evaluation to determine whether the postoperative use of TXA reduces recurrence rate. A prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. Patients with unilateral or bilateral chronic subdural hematoma undergoing surgical treatment by burr-hole were randomized as to whether or not to use TXA in the postoperative period. We evaluated image and clinical recurrence of CSDH at follow up of 6 months and potential clinical and/or surgical complications impact of TXA. Twenty-six patients were randomized to the control group (52%) and twenty-four patients to the TXA group (48%). Follow-up ranged from 3 to 16 months. There were no significant difference between baseline data in groups regarding to age, gender, use of antiplatelet or anticoagulants, smoking, alcoholism, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hematoma laterality, hematoma thickness, and drain use. Clinical and radiological recurrence occurred in three patients (6%), being two cases in TXA group (8.3%) and 1 in control group (3.8%). Postoperative complications occurred in two patients during follow-up (4%), being both cases in TXA group (8.3%), and none in the control group. Although TXA group had a higher recurrence rate (8.3%), there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Moreover, TXA group had two complications while control group had no complications. Although limited by experimental nature of study and small sample, our current data suggest that TXA should not be used as a potential agent to avoid recurrences of CSDH and might increase complication odds.
A Randomized Trial of Three Routes of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Total Knee Arthroplasty
Hootsmans NAM, Vellanky S, Grady-Benson J, Cremins MS
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to decrease blood loss and transfusion rates across a variety of routes of administration and doses in the setting of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Oral TXA is less studied but has decreased cost and increased ease of administration. This prospective, randomized study compared the efficacy and cost of three routes of TXA administration in the setting of primary TKA. Primary outcomes were 24-hour hemoglobin loss, calculated blood loss, and blood transfusion rate. One-way analysis of variance, Pearson's chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. One hundred eleven patients were enrolled. The mean 24-hour hemoglobin loss for the intravenous (IV), oral, and topical TXA groups was 2.50±0.95 g/dL, 2.64±0.94 g/dL, and 2.52±0.90 g/dL, respectively, with no clinical or statistically significant differences among the groups (P=.79). Calculated blood loss was not significantly different (P=.61) among the IV TXA (1067±371 mL), oral TXA (1127±455 mL), and topical TXA (1027±454 mL) groups. No patients in any treatment group required a blood transfusion. IV, oral, and topical routes of TXA administration offer similar clinical benefits for perioperative bleeding and blood transfusion rate in TKA. Oral TXA provides a cost-benefit relative to the other routes of administration ($14 vs $114 per patient), making it a more cost-effective choice. Oral TXA has additional logistical challenges compared with other routes of administration due to increased absorption time, which may impact its use in clinical practice. [Orthopedics. 202x;4x(x):xx-xx.].
Comparison of Tranexamic Acid and Dexmedetomidine on Bleeding in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Ahmadi MS, Jahanshahi J, Hashemian F, Salimbahrani AR, Haghi N, Khanlarzadeh E
Iranian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2023;35(126):49-56
INTRODUCTION The quality of the surgical field during the surgery is impaired when bleeding occurs. This study compared the effect of tranexamic acid and dexmedetomidine on the rate of bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). MATERIALS AND METHODS In this one-blind clinical trial, 72 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who were candidates for ESS at Be'sat Hospital in Hamedan were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received dexmedetomidine at a dose of 1μg/kg, and group B received tranexamic acid at a dose of 10mg/kg immediately after induction of anesthesia intravenously within 15 minutes. The two groups were evaluated and compared regarding the quality of the surgery field with the Boezaart scale, volume of intraoperative bleeding, hemodynamic changes, and complications up to 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. RESULTS The mean volume of intraoperative bleeding in group A (181.67±86.66) was significantly higher than in group B (110.28±61.23) (P =0.000). At 15, 30, and 60 minutes, the quality of the surgical field in group B was better than group A (P =0.038), while at 90 minutes, there was no statistically significant difference (P =0.450). The mean arterial pressure in group A at 15 minutes was higher than in group B (P=0.003); at 60 and 90 minutes, it was lower, and the difference was statistically significant (P =0.01). On the other hand, in 30 minutes, the mean arterial pressure in group A was higher than in group B, without a significant difference (P =0.07). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the average surgery time (P = 0.25) and the frequency of complications (P =0.405). CONCLUSIONS Based on the results, tranexamic acid is preferable to injectable dexmedetomidine to control and reduce bleeding during ESS.
Alternative routes for tranexamic acid treatment in obstetric bleeding (WOMAN-PharmacoTXA trial): a randomised trial and pharmacological study in caesarean section births
Shakur-Still H, Roberts I, Grassin-Delyle S, Chaudhri R, Geer A, Arribas M, Lamy E, Mansukhani R, Lubeya MK, Javaid K, et al
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2023
OBJECTIVE To examine the safety, efficacy and pharmacology of intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral tranexamic acid (TXA) use in pregnant women. DESIGN Randomised, open-label trial. SETTING Hospitals in Pakistan and Zambia. POPULATION Women giving birth by caesarean section. METHODS Women were randomised to receive 1â€‰g IV, 1â€‰g IM, 4â€‰g oral TXA or no TXA. Adverse events in women and neonates were recorded. TXA concentration in whole blood was measured and the concentrations over time were examined with population pharmacokinetics. The relationship between drug exposure and D-dimer was explored. The trial registration is NCT04274335. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Concentration of TXA in maternal blood. RESULTS Of the 120 women included in the randomised safety study, there were no serious maternal or neonatal adverse events. TXA concentrations in 755 maternal blood and 87 cord blood samples were described by a two-compartment model with one effect compartment linked by rate transfer constants. Maximum maternal concentrations were 46.9, 21.6 and 18.1â€‰mg/L for IV, IM and oral administration, respectively, and 9.5, 7.9 and 9.1â€‰mg/L in the neonates. The TXA response was modelled as an inhibitory effect on the D-dimer production rate. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) was 7.5â€‰mg/L and was achieved after 2.6, 6.4 and 47â€‰minutes with IV, IM and oral administration of TXA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Both IM and oral TXA are well tolerated. Oral TXA took about 1â€‰hour to reach minimum therapeutic concentrations and would not be suitable for emergency treatment. Intramuscular TXA inhibits fibrinolysis within 10â€‰minutes and may be a suitable alternative to IV.
The effect of intravenous unit-dose tranexamic acid on visible and hidden blood loss in posterior lumbar interbody fusion: a randomized clinical trial
Hao, S., Li, H., Liu, S., Meng, S., Zhang, X., Wang, L., Yang, H., Zhang, L., Dong, S.
Scientific Reports. 2023;13(1):4714
There are few reports of intravenous unit-dose tranexamic acid (TXA) on the relationship between visible blood loss (VBL) and hidden blood loss (HBL) in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Therefore, the objective of this randomized, prospective, double-blind, single center study was to investigate the effect of intravenous unit-dose TXA on VBL and HBL in patients who underwent PLIF. Among 100 patients, 11 were excluded due to failue to comply with the study, 1 was excluded due to non-conpliance with the study, and 88 were eligible for inclusion in the study. 46 patients who treated with PLIF received unit-dose of TXA (1 g/100 mL) intravenously 15 min before skin incision after general anesthesia (observation group) and 42 patients were given 100 mL of normal saline (control group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage, VBL, HBL, blood transfusion rate, and adverse events were recorded in the two groups. Besides, activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), platelets (PLT), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) on the 1st postoperative day; and RBC, HB, HCT, CRP, ESR on the 4th postoperative day were recorded. All 88 patients successfully completed the operation, the incision healed well, and there was no deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity after operation. The intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage, VBL, HBL, and blood transfusion rate in the observation group were lower than those in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time between the two groups (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative APTT, PT, TT, FIB, PLT, RBC, HB, HCT, CRP and ESR between the two groups (p > 0.05). Intravenous unit-dose TXA is safe and feasible in PLIF, and it can effectively reduce perioperative VBL and HBL.
Safety and Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid in Hip Hemiarthroplasty for Fracture Neck Femur: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Tripathy SK, Varghese P, Kumarasamy AKN, Mishra NP, Neradi D, Jain M, Sarkar S, Sen RK
Indian journal of orthopaedics. 2023;57(1):33-43
PURPOSE Although numerous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have established the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in hip fracture surgeries, the included studies in those reviews have included all types of surgical interventions ranging from fixation to arthroplasty. Hip hemiarthroplasty is usually indicated in the elderly patients with femoral neck fracture and these patients have associated severe comorbidities and cognitive impairment. These subsets of patients with femoral neck fracture needs appropriate perioperative care and judicious use of antifibrinolytics. There is no meta-analysis evaluating the safety and efficacy of intravenous TXA in these patients. METHODS Searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases revealed 102 studies on TXA in hip fracture surgeries. After screening, eight studies were found to be suitable for review. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to compare blood transfusion rate between TXA vs. control in hip hemiarthroplasty. The secondary objectives were total blood loss, postoperative haemoglobin, surgical duration, length of hospital stay and side effects (VTE, readmission and 30 days mortality). RESULTS There were one RCT, one prospective cohort study and six retrospective studies. All studies recruited the elderly patients. Intravenous (IV) TXA administration resulted in significant reduction in requirement of blood transfusion (12.7% vs. 31.9%; OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.17-0.46; p < 00,001; I (2) = 73%). The TXA group had significantly decreased total blood loss (MD - 100.31; 95% CI - 153.79, - 46.83; p < 0.0002). The postoperative Hb in the TXA group was significantly higher than the control group (MD 0.53; 95% CI 0.35, 0.71; p < 0.00001). There was no significant difference in the incidences of VTE (0.97% vs. 0.73%, OR 1.27; p = 0.81; I (2) = 64%) and readmission rate (9.2% vs. 9.64%; OR 0.79; p = 0.54), but 30-d mortality rate was significantly lower in the TXA group (3.41% vs. 6.04%; OR 0.66; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Intravenous TXA is efficacious in the reduction of blood loss and transfusion need in hip hemiarthroplasty surgery for hip fracture, without increased risk of VTE. The blood conservation protocol led to decreased 30 days mortality in these fragile elderly patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.
Single dose of tranexamic acid effectively reduces blood loss in patients undergoing spine surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Alejandro RS, Alejandro DS, Barón ZK, Javier GG, Rocío GGp, Huffman C, Luis M Ro, Armando AA, Carla LGr
World neurosurgery. 2023
STUDY DESIGN Randomized control trial. OBJECTIVE Evaluate the efficacy of oral administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spine surgeries to achieve blood loss reduction. METHODS A total of 60 patients undergoing major surgery of the spine, were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group 1 was assigned as the control group and the other one included oral administration of tranexamic acid 2 hours prior to surgery. Outcomes measures included intraoperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss, hematological parameters, blood transfusion needed, and surgical complications. RESULTS Sixty patients linked up with the inclusion criteria. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower in the TXA oral group than in the control group, total blood loss in the TXA group with 930.66±614ml lower than the control group with 1075.66±956.11ml. The mean reduction of hemoglobin was almost the same in both groups. Similarly, the total transfusion package received was lower, and the number of complications and length of stay were akin in both groups. A logistic regression model was performed with patients who had blood loss of more than 1000ml and, surgery time longer than 230min. This was related to the risk of bleeding with an OR of 1.31, 95%CI 1.004-1.023, p=0.004 independent of the group. CONCLUSION Oral TXA results as an effective measure for reducing total blood loss among patients undergoing elective spine surgery.