Sinus Lift Associated with Leucocyte-Platelet-Rich Fibrin (Second Generation) for Bone Gain: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze sinus lifting procedures and to compare the efficiency of this treatment associated with the second generation of platelet-rich fibrin related to its effects on bone gain and to clarify the regenerative efficacy in sinus lift procedure, whether alone or as a coadjutant to other bone graft materials. The PICOT question was, "In clinical studies with patients needing a maxillary sinus lift (P), does the use of PRF either alone (I) or in conjunction with other biomaterials (C) improve the clinical outcome associated with bone gain and density (O), with at least three months of follow-up (T)?" An electronic search was conducted in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, and Scopus databases through a search strategy. A total of 443 articles were obtained from the electronic database search. Sixteen articles met all criteria and were included in this review. Within the limitation of this study and interpreting the results carefully, it was suggested that a higher risk for implant failure after a sinus elevation might be seen in patients with residual bone ≤4 mm, and PRF application was effective, suggesting reducing the time needed for new bone formation.
The Adjunctive Use of Leucocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Endosseous and Furcation Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;15(6)
The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the adjunctive use of leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in periodontal endosseous and furcation defects, as compared without L-PRF. The endosseous defect group was subclassified into: L-PRF/open flap debridement (L-PRF/OFD) versus OFD, L-PRF/osseous graft (L-PRF/OG) versus OG, L-PRF/Emdogain (L-PRF/EMD) versus EMD, and L-PRF/guided tissue regeneration (L-PRF/GTR) versus GTR. The furcation defect group was subclassified into L-PRF/OFD versus OFD, and L-PRF/OG versus OG. Mean difference, 95% confidence intervals and forest plots were calculated for probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic defect depth (DD). Nineteen studies concerning systemically healthy non-smokers were included. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed in two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects that the adjunctive use of L-PRF to OFD or OG was significantly beneficial for PPD reduction, CAL gain and DD reduction, as compared without L-PRF. Furthermore, the data showed that for two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects, the adjunctive use of L-PRF to GTR was significantly beneficial for CAL and DD improvement, whereas adding L-PRF to EMD had no significant effect, and that for class II furcation defects, the addition of L-PRF to OFD was significantly beneficial for PPD, CAL and DD improvement, whereas the addition of L-PRF to OG was significantly clinically beneficial. In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis found that there was significant clinical and radiographic additive effectiveness of L-PRF to OFD and to OG in two- and/or three-wall periodontal endosseous defects of systemically healthy non-smokers, as compared without L-PRF.
Regenerative Potential of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in Socket Preservation in Comparison with Conventional Treatment Modalities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) has shown great potential in osteogenesis; however, some studies still question utilizing it as a grafting material. Thus, the aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of PRF when used in socket and ridge preservation procedures. METHODS Electronic searches through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane, Science Citation Index Expanded databases and manual searches of unpublished data, academic theses, and journals were conducted up until July 2021. The outcomes were to assess the ability of PRF as a graft material to preserve bone width, height, and density after tooth extraction. RESULTS Twelve studies were included in the review, using PRF showed significant results in all three outcomes when compared to no grafting at all, however when compared to other commonly used grafting materials it showed a lesser effect. On the other hand, most studies included reported mixing PRF with a graft material showed the best result. The meta-analysis also revealed the significant results in using PRF on the three outcomes. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of the studies included proved the beneficial effect of PRF in socket preservation surgeries alone or in combination with other graft materials, but further individual multi-centre randomized controlled studies with appropriate sample size are still needed to further confirm our findings.
The use of advanced platelet-rich fibrin after surgical removal of mandibular third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2022
The objective of this systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in recovery following surgical removal of mandibular third molars with the application of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) in the extraction socket compared with alternative biomaterials or natural wound healing. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus was conducted. Human randomized controlled trials published in English up until December 31, 2020 were included. Outcome measures were pain, facial swelling, trismus, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis, and quality of life; these were evaluated by descriptive statistics and meta-analysis including 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four studies with a low or moderate risk of bias fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A-PRF resulted in significantly lower pain scores when compared with leucocyte platelet-rich fibrin or natural wound healing after 2 days (-16.8, 95% CI -18.9 to -14.7), 3 days (-12.1, 95% CI -13.4 to -10.7), and 7 days (-1.9, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.9). A-PRF seems to have a negligible effect on facial swelling and trismus and some beneficial effect on soft tissue healing. Alveolar osteitis and quality of life were not assessed. The included studies were characterized by considerable heterogeneity and confounding variables. Thus, the level of evidence appears to be inadequate for clinical recommendations according to the focused question.
Fibrin sealant versus sutures in periodontal surgery: A systematic review
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2022;76:103539
BACKGROUND The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of fibrin sealant compared to sutures in periodontal surgery. METHODS Five electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Cochrane and Web of Science) were screened from initiation to January 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing fibrin sealant to sutures in periodontal surgery using this search equation: (Periodont* OR Periodontitis) AND ("fibrin tissue adhesive" OR "fibrin glue" OR "fibrin sealant" OR "fibrin sealant system" OR "fibrin adhesive system" OR "fibrin fibronectin sealant system"). Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the revised tool to assess risk of bias in randomized trials (RoB 2). The level of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE tool. RESULTS A total of 240 publications were found as search results in the screened databases. Four RCTs were included in this systematic review based on predetermined inclusion criteria. The trials were published between 1987 and 2014. All the RCTs compared fibrin sealant to sutures in periodontal surgery. The sample size included 101 patients. The overall risk of bias in this systematic review was at high risk in 75% of the studies, while 25% of the studies raised some concerns. The level of evidence evaluated using GRADE tool was very low. DISCUSSION The current systematic review indicates a low level of evidence of the use of fibrin sealant as an alternative to sutures in periodontal practice. More interventional and multicentric studies should be conducted to support and confirm the results of the included studies.
Efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
The journal of evidence-based dental practice. 2021;21(3):101540
OBJECTIVE Adequate hemostasis is a critical step in endodontic surgery. It facilitates the procedure and affects the success and prognosis of the operation. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) aimed to systematically assess the efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery and to identify the most effective ones. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost databases were searched up to December 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of different hemostatic measures in endodontic surgery, and their risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's randomized trial tool (RoB 2.0). Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted, with Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) as effect estimates using the "netmeta" package in R. The quality of evidence was assessed using the CINeMA approach. RESULTS Six RCTs involving 353 patients (mean age 48.12 y) were included. NMA revealed that aluminum chloride achieved higher hemostatic efficacy than epinephrine (OR = 2.55, 95% CI [1.41, 4.64]), while there was non-significant difference when compared with PTFE strips + epinephrine (OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.35, 2.90]), electrocauterization (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [0.84, 8.46]), or ferric sulfate (OR = 8.65, 95% CI [0.31, 240.92]). Of all hemostatic agents, aluminum chloride ranked first in control bleeding during endodontic surgery (P-score = 0.84), followed by PTFE strips + epinephrine (P-score = 0.80), electrocauterization (P-score = 0.34), epinephrine (P-score = 0.34), ferric sulfate (P-score = 0.18). The quality of evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS Based on the limited data, aluminum chloride provides better hemostasis than epinephrine, while there was no significant difference between the remaining hemostatic agents used in endodontic surgery, which could help clinicians choose the hemostatic agent that achieves adequate hemostasis. achieve adequate hemostasis. Given insufficient evidence, future RCTs addressing this evidence gap are required.
"Signs and Symptoms Tell All"-Pseudoaneurysm as a Cause of Postoperative Bleeding after Orthognathic Surgery-Report of a Case and a Systematic Review of Literature
Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery. 2021;20(3):345-355
PURPOSE Pseudoaneurysms are one of the rare complications that can be encountered after the orthognathic surgery. We are presenting a new case of pseudoaneurysm of bilateral sphenopalatine artery after Bijaw Surgery in a young male and a systematic review of all the cases in the literature emphasizing on signs and symptoms, epistaxis or bleeding episodes and treatment outcomes. METHODS A systematic research strategy was planned according to the PRISMA guidelines, and articles were taken from 1986 to September, 2019. A total of 899 articles were selected for screening, out of which only 26 articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. These were included in the study for qualitative analysis. RESULTS Most PAs were associated with Lefort I osteotomy (69.7%), followed by sagittal split osteotomy (24.24%). Average intraoperative blood was 635 ml. Maximum number of episodes of epistaxis/swelling or bleeding occurred in second week. Mean bleeding episodes were 2.58 ± 0.996. The arteries commonly affected were internal maxillary artery (42%), sphenopalatine artery (27.27%), facial artery (15.15%), descending palatine artery (12.12%), internal carotid artery (9.09%) and infraorbital artery (3.03%). Embolization was treatment of choice in 81.81% cases. CONCLUSION If a patient has recurrent epistaxis or swelling after orthognathic surgery, it is advisable to go for diagnostic imaging like angiography without any delay. In recent times, advanced techniques and expertise are readily available for early diagnosis and management of pseudoaneurysm.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.
Stability of biomaterials used in adjunct to coronally advanced flap: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Clinical and experimental dental research. 2021
AIM: The objective of this network meta-analysis was to rank different biomaterials used in adjunct to coronally advanced flap (CAF), based on their performance in root-coverage for Miller's Class I and II gingival recessions. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic database search was carried out in PUBMED, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE to identify the eligible articles and compiled into the citation manager to remove the duplicates. The primary outcome was keratinized gingival tissue width (KGW) and percentage of root coverage (%RC). The treatment effect of different biomaterials was estimated using predictive interval plots and ranked based on biomaterials performance, using multidimensional scale ranking. RESULTS CAF + connective tissue graft (CTG), CAF + platelet concentrate matrix (PCM) and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) ranked at the top positions in performance in improving KGW. The highest ranked materials in improving percentage of root coverage in gingival recession were CAF + collagen matrix (CM) + gingival fibroblasts (GF), CAF + ADM + platelet rich plasma (PRP) and CAF + ADM, as compared to CAF alone. CONCLUSION CTG, ADM, platelet concentrates, and CM + GFs, when used in adjunct to CAF, showed improved stability over ≥12 months of follow-up, better percentage of root coverage, and improved keratinized gingival width.
Potential of Lyophilized Platelet Concentrates for Craniofacial Tissue Regenerative Therapies
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;26(3)
OBJECTIVE The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low elastic modulus and strength, and limited storage capability. These issues restrict their broader application. This review focuses on the lyophilization of PCs (LPCs) and how this processing approach affects their biological and mechanical properties for application as a bioactive scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted from 1946 until 2019 using a combination of search terms relating to this topic. RESULTS Ten manuscripts were identified as being relevant. The use of LPCs was mostly studied in in vitro and in vivo craniofacial bone regeneration models. Notably, one clinical study reported the utility of LPCs for guided bone regeneration prior to dental implant placement. CONCLUSIONS Lyophilization can enhance the inherent characteristics of PCs and extends shelf-life, enable their use in emergency surgery, and improve storage and transportation capabilities. In light of this, further preclinical studies and clinical trials are required, as LPCs offer a potential approach for clinical application in craniofacial tissue regeneration.