A randomized controlled study of vitrectomy combined with recombinant tissue-type fibrinogen activator submacular injection for the treatment of polypoid choroidal vasculopathy complicated with massive submacular haemorrhage
Minerva medica. 2022
Autologous Fat Plus Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Autologous Fat Alone on Sulcus Vocalis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(3)
Sulcus vocalis is a frequent cause of glottic insufficiency that leads to incomplete vocal fold closure during phonation. Type II sulcus vocalis is defined as a partial defect of the lamina propria (LP). Treatment with fillers, such as fat or hyaluronic acid (HA), in the vocal folds is widely used, but the duration of effect is variable. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can enhance the survival of autologous fat in fat grafting, and also is used to treat sulcus vocalis. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of autologous fat graft versus fat graft plus PRP to treat type II sulcus vocalis. Thirty-four patients with a voice handicap index (VHI) ≥ 11 were randomized to two groups, which received LP injections of fat graft (n = 17) or fat graft plus PRP (n = 17). At 1 month and 6 months after injection, the VHI decreased significantly in both groups. The fat plus PRP group had better Jitter, Shimmer, and noise to harmonic ratio (NHR) in 1 month and 6 months after surgery. The fat plus PRP group resulted in lower VHI scores one month after surgery, and stroboscopy revealed sustained smaller gaps after six months. These results indicate that a combination of fat graft plus PRP is safe and effective for treating sulcus vocalis type II and associated vocal atrophy.
Comparison of Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine on the bleeding volume during Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery
International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. 2022;14(3):177-186
BACKGROUND Bleeding in Dacryocystorhinostomy (DRC) limits the surgeon's sight and access. Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine reduce intraoperative blood loss. However, no study has been carried out to compare the efficacy of the latter drugs during DCR surgery. METHODS Ninety healthy candidates for DCR surgery with chronic Dacryocystitis (aging 20-80) were randomly assigned in groups of 30 to receive low doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA) (10 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 1000 mg), Remifentanil (0.1 µ/kg), or Hydralazine (0.1 mg/kg). All drugs were infused over 15 minutes before the initiation of surgery. The primary outcome was the bleeding volume during the surgery and until 2 hours in recovery. This study was approved by the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the code of IRCT20210614051574N10 (https://en.irct.ir/trial/62759). RESULTS Thirty patients (mean age ± SD: 50.48±13.4) were investigated. Mean blood loss volume was lower in Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups compared with the TXA group (P<0.05); there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in bleeding volume between Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups (Tranexamic acid group: 146.83±91 ml, Remifentanil group: 77.6±52.1 ml, Hydralazine group: 80.0±48.7 ml, 95% confidence interval, P<0.05). CONCLUSION Our results show that Remifentanil and Hydralazine are more effective than Tranexamic acid in bleeding control.
Desmopressin nasal spray reduces blood loss and improves the quality of the surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery
Journal of anaesthesiology, clinical pharmacology. 2021;37(2):261-265
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Making a dry surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a challenge for anesthetists. This study was conducted to evaluate the pre-emptive hemostatic effects of a single dose of an intranasal spray of desmopressin (DDAVP) in sinus surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty consecutive patient's as first-time candidates for FESS due to chronic sinusitis were enrolled. They were randomly allocated to receive either a nasal spray of DDAVP 20 μg or sterile water before induction of anesthesia. Management of anesthesia was achieved with propofol and remifentanil infusions. Blood loss, quality of the surgical field, and surgeon's satisfaction were compared between the two groups. RESULTS Blood loss in the DDAVP group was 147 ± 43 mL and in the placebo group 212 ± 64 mL (mean ± SD, P < 0.01). The quality of the surgical field in the DDAVP group was better than the placebo group. (median score, 1 (1-2) vs. 2 (1-3), P = 0.017). Surgeons were more satisfied with the surgical field in the DDAVP group than in the control group (median score, 4 (2.8-5) vs. 3 (2-3), P = 0.04). CONCLUSION Premedication with nasal spray DDAVP 20 μg effectively reduces bleeding and improves the surgical field during FESS.
Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Corneal Epithelial Healing after Phototherapeutic Keratectomy: An Intraindividual Contralateral Randomized Study
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:5752248
PURPOSE To assess the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the healing response of the corneal epithelium in eyes undergoing phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). METHODS We prospectively examined 20 eyes of 10 patients undergoing bilateral PTK for granular corneal dystrophy or band keratopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to start topical administration of PRP ophthalmic suspension (PRP group) or artificial tears (control group) 4 times daily for 2 weeks. Immediately, 1, and 2 days, and 1 week after PTK, we quantitatively measured the staining area of the corneal epithelium, using slit-lamp photography. We also determined the subjective symptoms and the satisfaction, using the visual analogue system (VAS). RESULTS The staining area in the PRP group was significantly smaller than that in the control group on days 1 and 2 (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p = 0.022 and p = 0.017, respectively), but not on day 7 (p = 0.317). The recovery rate of the corneal epithelium in the PRP group was significantly higher than that in the control group on days 1 and 2 (p = 0.022 and p = 0.017, respectively), but not on day 7 (p = 0.317). We found no significant differences in pain (p = 0.139), foreign body sensation (p = 0.108), epiphora (p = 1.000), or satisfaction (p = 0.295), between the two groups. Postoperative complications did not occur in any of the eyes in the study. CONCLUSIONS The PRP treatment was effective for enhancing corneal epithelial recovery in the early postoperative period, without significant adverse events, in post-PTK-treated eyes, suggesting that it may hold promise as one of the treatment options for treating such postsurgical patients.
Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Improves the Intraoperative Visualization of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for High-Grade Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blinded Prospective Trial
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:771159
Objective: Intraoperative bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for high-grade rhinosinusitis can be serious and can further obscure the surgical field. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on the surgical visualization of ESS for high-grade rhinosinusitis. Methods: In total, 60 patients with high-grade chronic rhinosinusitis (Lund-Mackay score 12 or greater) treated by ESS were randomized into two groups: the control group (Group C) or the TXA group (Group T). Each group included 30 patients. Patients in Group T received intravenous TXA, and those in Group C received normal saline. The Boezaart grading scale (BS) score was assessed as the primary outcome. Total blood loss (TBL), whole blood coagulation, and fibrinolysis were assessed by Sonoclot analysis, and complications were recorded and compared between the groups. Result: A significant difference was found in the BS score between Group T and Group C [2.02 (1.88-2.05) vs. 2.27 (2.13-2.41), P = 0.011]. Increases in platelet function (PF) and fibrin degradation time (FDT) were assessed during the operation and showed significant differences between Group T and Group C (P = 0.040 for PF; P = 0.010 for FDT). No difference in complications was found between the two groups. Conclusion: A 15 mg/kg bolus of intravenous TXA before surgery can improve the surgical visualization of ESS for high-grade chronic rhinosinusitis without causing significant adverse effects. Intravenous TXA may be beneficial in ESS for high-grade chronic rhinosinusitis. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=121653&htm=4.
Effects of the Two Doses of Dexmedetomidine on Sedation, Agitation, and Bleeding During Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy
Anesthesiology and pain medicine. 2021;11(5):e118424
BACKGROUND Due to the importance of dexmedetomidine and its different dosages, here, we aimed to investigate and compare the effectiveness of the doses of 1 µg/kg and 2 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine in sedation, agitation, and bleeding in pediatrics undergoing adenotonsillectomy. METHODS This double-blinded randomized clinical trial was performed on 105 pediatric patients that were candidates for adenotonsillectomy. Then, the patients were divided into three groups receiving dexmedetomidine at a dose of 2 µg/kg, diluted dexmedetomidine at 1 µg/kg, and normal saline. The drugs were administered 15 minutes before operations via the intravenous method. The duration of extubation, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and SPO(2) in the recovery were recorded. We also collected data regarding patients' sedation and agitation every 15 minutes. RESULTS Our data showed no significant differences between the groups of patients regarding MAP, HR, and SPO(2). However, the mean sedation score was significantly higher in patients receiving dexmedetomidine (2 µg/kg), and this score was lowest in the control group at the time of entrance to the recovery room. The patients that received dexmedetomidine at a dose of 1 µg/kg had the lowest agitation score after 45 minutes of being in the recovery room, and the patients treated with dexmedetomidine at a dose of 2 µg/kg had the lowest agitation score after 60 minutes of being in the recovery compared to other groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS The use of the doses of 1 µg/kg and 2 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine was associated with proper sedation and a significant reduction in agitation. The patients also had lower amounts of bleeding. We recommend that anesthesiologists should pay more attention to dexmedetomidine at a dose of 2 µg/kg, especially in pediatric surgical procedures.
Selection of the optimal dosage of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during pediatric cleft palate surgery
Tzu chi medical journal. 2021;33(2):181-187
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate and select the optimal dosage of tranexamic acid (TXA) to reduce blood loss during cleft palate surgery in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on 80 children under 3 years of age that were candidates for cleft palate surgery. These children were divided into four groups as follows: the first, second, and third groups received 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg of TXA, respectively. Moreover, the fourth group was considered as the control group. Before induction of anesthesia and then every 15 min during the surgery, some parameters such as mean arterial pressure, heart rate, SpO(2), and ETCO(2) were recorded. Moreover, the amount of blood loss during the surgery, the level of surgeon's satisfaction, and incidence rate of complications were assessed and recorded. RESULTS The amount of blood loss during the surgery in TXA groups receiving dosages of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg with the means of 63.75 ± 10.62, 61.25 ± 15.03, and 61.00 ± 14.29, respectively, was significantly lower than that of the control group with the mean of 92.25 ± 19.83 (P < 0.001). Moreover, no significant difference was found between the three groups receiving TXA dosages in terms of the amount of blood loss, the level of surgeon's satisfaction (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION According to the results of the present study, all three dosages of TXA had a significant role in reducing blood loss in cleft palate surgery. Given the potential for increased risk of side effects from the drug, it seems safe to use the minimal dosage of this drug to control and reduce blood loss during cleft palate surgery in children <3 years of age.
Visual Acuity, Vitreous Hemorrhage, and Other Ocular Outcomes After Vitrectomy vs Aflibercept for Vitreous Hemorrhage Due to Diabetic Retinopathy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA ophthalmology. 2021
IMPORTANCE Although there were no differences in mean visual acuity (VA) over 24 weeks after vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) vs aflibercept in a randomized clinical trial among eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), post hoc analyses may influence treatment choices. OBJECTIVE To compare exploratory outcomes between treatment groups that may affect treatment choices for patients with vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites included adults with vision loss due to PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage for whom vitrectomy was considered. Data were collected from November 2016 to January 2020. INTERVENTIONS Random assignment to 4 monthly injections of aflibercept vs vitrectomy with PRP. Both groups could receive aflibercept or vitrectomy during follow-up based on protocol-specific criteria. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity area under the curve (adjusted for baseline VA) and clearance of vitreous hemorrhage. RESULTS A total of 205 eyes were included in the analysis (115 male [56%] and 90 [44%] female participants; mean [SD] age, 57  years). Among 89 eyes with a baseline VA of 20/32 to 20/160 (47 receiving aflibercept, including 4 [9%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 42 undergoing vitrectomy, including 3 [7%] that had received aflibercept), the adjusted mean difference in VA letter score over 24 weeks between the aflibercept and vitrectomy groups was -4.3 (95% CI, -10.6 to 1.9) compared with -16.7 (95% CI, -24.4 to -9.1) among 59 eyes with baseline VA worse than 20/800 (P = .02 for interaction; 26 in the aflibercept group, including 6 [23%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 33 in the vitrectomy group, including 8 [24%] that had received aflibercept). In the full cohort, the median time to clearance of the initial vitreous hemorrhage was 36 (interquartile range [IQR], 24-52) weeks in the aflibercept group vs 4 (IQR, 4-4) weeks in the vitrectomy group (difference, 32 [95% CI, 20-32] weeks; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Both initial aflibercept and vitrectomy with PRP are viable treatment approaches for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. Although this study did not find a significant difference between groups in the primary outcome of mean VA over 24 weeks of follow-up, eyes receiving initial vitrectomy with PRP had faster recovery of vision over 24 weeks when baseline VA was worse than 20/800 and faster vitreous hemorrhage clearance. Approximately one-third of the eyes in each group received the alternative treatment (aflibercept or vitrectomy with PRP). These factors may influence treatment decisions for patients initiating therapy for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02858076.
Prophylactic effect of brimonidine to minimize the incidence of subconjunctival hemorrhage in the early postoperative period after 23G pars plana vitrectomy
Therapeutic advances in ophthalmology. 2021;13:25158414211045753
BACKGROUND Several studies have investigated and demonstrated the prophylactic effect of brimonidine drops in preventing subconjunctival hemorrhage in some microincisional ophthalmic surgeries, such as intravitreal injections or cataract surgery. However, there are no previous studies investigating this prophylactic effect after 23G microincisional vitreoretinal surgery. AIM: The aim of the current study was to determine whether subconjunctival hemorrhage after 23G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) could be prevented with the use of prophylactic topical brimonidine. METHODS This was a phase III, prospective, interventional, randomized, controlled single-center clinical trial with a follow-up of 2 weeks. A total of 77 eyes (mean age: 68.4 ± 10.7 years) undergoing 23G PPV were included and randomized into two groups: group 1 including 41 patients receiving prophylactic preoperative treatment with brimonidine, and group 2 (control group) including 36 patients not receiving this prophylactic treatment. Differences in terms of number of conjunctival quadrants affected with subconjunctival hemorrhage were evaluated in each of the follow-up visits. RESULTS The presence of subconjunctival hemorrhage was similar in both groups the first days after surgery (p > 0.05). At the last visit (10-14 days after surgery), this condition was significantly more frequent in control group where there was a significant difference, being more frequent in the control group (7.3% vs 28.6%, p = 0.022). The number of conjunctival quadrants affected was also similar in both groups, except for the last visit in which most of the patients treated with brimonidine (92.7%) showed no bleeding compared to 71.4% in control group. No effect on the efficacy of brimonidine treatment of the presence of blood hypertension, diabetes, and antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment was observed. CONCLUSION Brimonidine seems to be a useful option to decrease subconjunctival hemorrhage after microincisional vitreoretinal surgery or improve its resolution during the first postoperative week. This finding should be mainly due to the vasoconstrictor effect of brimonidine. TRIAL REGISTRATION EudraCT, 2012-002895-15 (registered 19 December 2012); https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2012-002895-15.